Availability of Physical Infrastructure in Implementation of the Competence-Based Curriculum in Public Primary Schools in Kericho County
A competency-based curriculum is a curriculum that allows students to develop prescribed competencies. In Kenya, the Competence-Based Curriculum implementation of 2-6-6-3 was adopted in January 2017. This education system replaces the 8-4-4 system of education and it aims to nurture the learners’ talents. School preparedness for the new curriculum change in Kenyan public primary schools is very important in the education policy framework. When curriculum changes take place in education, teachers as instructors and implementers should be supported to be competent in their work. The educators have a responsibility to ensure that today’s learning content meets tomorrow’s global demands for every learner. However, in Kenya, various stakeholders have expressed concerns regarding school and teachers’ preparedness for the Competence-Based Curriculum. The objective of the study was to find out whether there is a relationship between the availability of physical infrastructure and the implementation of the competency-based curriculum. Dewey’s Social Constructivism theory guided the study. A descriptive survey design and correlation research design was used in this study. The target population of the study included 24 County Support Officers (CSOs’), 524 headteachers, and 610 Grade 1 teachers. The sample size was 6 CSOs, 52 Headteachers, and 61 Grade 1 teachers. A saturated sampling technique was used to select all the 52 headteachers from 52 schools. Simple random sampling was used to select the schools and CSOs. A purposive sampling technique was used to select Grade 1 teachers in Kericho County. Data was collected using interview schedules, questionnaires, and an observation schedule. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics in the form of percentages, means, and standard deviation, while inferential statistics were correlated using Pearson product-moment correlation. Qualitative data was analysed using themes and sub-themes. The findings established that physical infrastructure had a moderate positive influence on CBC implementation with a correlation of 0.336 and a calculated value of 0.029 for the headteachers and 0.285 with a calculated value of 0.03 for Grade 1 teachers. Shortage of physical infrastructures like nutrition rooms and music rooms had a mean of 2.18 and 1.88 for headteachers. Grade 1 teachers’ response was 1.39 and 1.35 for nutrition and music laboratories respectively. The findings of the headteachers on teacher preparation had a moderate positive influence on CBC with a correlation of 0.494 with a calculated value of 0.00. The teachers had a correlation of 0.369 with a calculated value of 0.005 and were significant to the study. The study recommended that the government should increase funds to enable schools to construct laboratories. The results of this study are important for the successful adoption of the competency-based program through the participation of education stakeholders.
Akomolafe, C. O., & Adesua, V. O. (2016). The Impact of Physical Facilities on Students’ Level of Motivation and Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools in South-West Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(4), 38-42.
Ashiono, B. (2018). Determinants of Information and Communication Technology Integration in Learning of Numeracy Concepts in Lower Primary Schools in Mombasa County, Kenya.Kenyatta University Institutional Repository.
Chaudhary, G. K. (2015). Factors affecting curriculum implementation for students. International journal of applied research, 1(12), 984-986.
Christensen, N. & Lane, J. (2016). Know-Do-Understand: Development of competencies in Canada’s schoolchildren. Canada West Foundation.
Council of Governors. (2019). Consultative Forum on the competence-based curriculum and the vocational training centres conditional grants guideline. Nairobi: News Highlights.
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Macmillan
European Union. (2018). Teaching and Learning in Primary Education.Retrieved on 14thSeptember 2018 from https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/teaching-and-learning-primary-education-20_en
Forum for Research and Policy in Communications (2020).
Hernández-de-Menéndez, M., & Morales-Menendez, R. (2017, June). Competency Based Education–Current Global Practices. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Higher Education Advances (pp. 1156-1163). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València.
Jadhav, M. S., & Patankar, P. (2013). Role of Teachers in Curriculum Development for Teacher Education. PaperPresented on the National Conference, Challenges inTeacher Education, Physical Education and Sports: Teachersas Curriculum Developers
Kanyonga, L., Mtana, N., & Wendt, H. (2019). Implementation of competence-based curriculum in technical colleges: The case of Arusha City, Tanzania. International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 11(1), 1-20.
KICD. (2017). Facilitator’s Training Manual for Early Years Education Curriculum. Nairobi; Kenya: Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development.
Kigwilu, P. C., & Akala, W. J. (2017). Resource utilisation and curriculum implementation in community colleges in Kenya. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training (IJRVET), 4(4), 369-381.
Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research methodology. Methods and techniques (2nd revised).
Leedy, P. & Ormrod, J. (2005). Practical Research Planning and Design. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Michel, A. (2017). The contribution of PISA to the convergence of education policies in Europe. European Journal of Education, 52(2), 206-216.
Moige, O. N. (2018). Determinants of Children’s Readiness for Grade 1, in Kisii Central Sub-county, Kenya. Dissertation, Kenyatta University.
Momanyi, J. & Rop, P. (2019). Teacher Preparedness for the Implementation of Competence-Based Curriculum in Kenya: A Survey of Early Grade Primary School Teachers in Bomet East Sub-County. African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research,7(1),10-15.
Muasya E. W., & Waweru S. N. (2019). Constraints Facing Successful Implementation of the Competence-Based Curriculum in Kenya. American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7 (12), 943-947.
Mulenga, I. M., & Kabombwe, Y.M. (2019). A Competence-Based Curriculum for Zambian Primary and Secondary Schools: Learning from Theory and some Countries around the World. International Journal of Education and Research, 7(2), 117-130.
Mwololo Waema, T., & Okinda, O. (2011). Policy Implications of the Relationship between ICT Access and Usage and Well-being: A Case Study of Kenya.
Nasara, E.S., &Agbo, D.A. (2019). A Comparative Study on Level of Competence Required By Lecturers and Students in the Use of Computer-Aided Design for Pattern Drafting inTertiary Institutions Nasarawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS, 3(7), 419-23.
Ngeno, B. C., Sang, H. C., & Chemosit, C. (2020). Teachers’ Computer Literacy in Selected Public Primary Schools in Ainamoi Sub-County in Kericho County, Kenya. East African Journal of Education Studies, 2(1), 1-7.
Nturibi, P. R. (2015). Influence of School Infrastructure on Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Ruiri Location-Meru County, Kenya. Unpublished Master Thesis. University of Nairobi
Ogutu, W. (2020). The Dynamics of Art and Craft Curriculum in Enhancing Child Growth and Development. East African Journal of Education Studies, 2(1), 18-24.
Ondimu, S. (2018). Teachers’ preparedness for Implementation of the Competency Based Curriculum in Private Pre-Schools in Dagoreti North Sub-County, Nairobi City County. Nairobi; Kenya: University of Nairobi.
Republic of Kenya. (2017). Basic Education Curriculum Framework. Nairobi; Kenya: Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development.
Rubagumya, E., Peeraer, J. &Ntawigira, E. (ed). (2018). Implementation CBC: Successes and Challenges. Kigali, Rwanda. UrunanaRw'abarezi,6, 6-9.
UNESCO. (2015). Evolution of Curriculum Systems to Improve Learning Outcomes and ReduceDisparities in School Achievement. The Education for All Global. International Bureau of Education.
Vallejs, N., Morel, G., &Tusing, J. (2017). Implementation of competency-based curriculum: College of Philosophy, Universidad Nacional del Este, Paraguay. The Journal of Competency Based Education, 2(1), e01038.
Wanjohi, A.M. (2018). Critical Review of 8-4-4 Education System in Kenya. Schools Net Kenya.
Waweru, J.W. (2018). Influence of Teacher Preparedness on Implementation of Competence Based Curriculum in Public Primary Schools in Nyandarua North Sub-County, Kenya. University of Nairobi.
World Bank. (2019). Learning Assessment Platform (LeAP). World Bank Group. https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/education/brief/learning-assessment-platform-leap
Copyright (c) 2021 Beatrice Ngeno, Maureen Mweru, PhD, Teresa Mwoma, PhD
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.