The Influence of Family Leadership on Girl- Child School Dropout

  • Angelina Shoo St. Augustine University of Tanzania
  • Chrispina Lekule St. Augustine University of Tanzania
Keywords: Family Leadership, Girl Child, School Dropout, Marginalized, Self- Empowerment
Share Article:


Family leadership is one of the vital aspects that influences and determines both the wellbeing and successful education of a girl-child. Unfortunately, the role of family leadership in ensuring girls' education is oversimplified into getting girls enrolled in school rather than warranting their perseverance in learning and successful completion. As a result, many communities in Tanzania, especially those in rural and marginalized areas are experiencing persistent girl–child school dropouts. It is against this standpoint that we sought to find out how family leadership may influence secondary school girls’ dropouts. We also explored possible measures which should be employed to eliminate girl-child school dropouts. In conducting this study, we employed a mixed research approach and convergent parallel design. We collected data through interviews and questionnaires involving 143 respondents including girl students, teachers, heads of schools, and district educational officers. Our findings from this study indicate that while the government of Tanzania has made remarkable efforts to ensure girls’ continuity and successful completion of secondary education, there are a number of factors hindering girls’ continuity and completion of secondary education. Weak family leadership, the improper raising of the children, less emphasis and interest on the importance of girls’ education, limited cooperation between family leadership were among the reason for continuous girl-child school dropout. Hence, based on our findings and the significance of girl’s education as well as the role which parents should play in ensuring girls achievement of education, we appeal to various educational leaders, to make strategic efforts in raising more awareness among rural and marginalized communities about the importance of educating girls and the role of family leadership in bringing to an end the phenomena of girl-child school dropout which is catastrophic to the long-awaited sustainable development. Moreover, we call upon all parents, to make intentional efforts in mentoring and influencing girls to strive towards achieving formal education.


Download data is not yet available.


Ananga, E. D. (2011). Dropping out of school in southern Ghana: the push-out and pull-out factors. Ghana; Centre for International education

Baker, L.T., Wise, J., Kelly, G. & Skiba, J.R. (2016). Identifying barriers: Creating solutions to improve family engagement. School Community Journal, 26(2), 161-184

Battin-Pearson, S., Newcomb, D. M., Abbott, D. R., &Hill, G. K. (2000). Predictors of early high school dropout: A test of five theories. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(3), 568-582

Chenge, P. R., Chenge, E. & Maunganidze, L. (2017). Family factors that contribute to school dropout in Rushinga district in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Law, Humanities and Social Science, 1(4), 87-105.

Chugh, S. (2011). Dropout in secondary education. New Delhi: National University of Educational Planning and Administration.

Dakwa, F., Chiome, C. & Chabaya, A. R. (2014). Poverty-related causes of school dropout-Dilrma of the girl child in rural Zimbabwe. International Journal of Academic Research in Progresive Education and Development, 3(1), 233-242. Doi:10.6007/JARPED/v3-i1/792

Danovska, K. (2018). Reasons behind children dropout of primary school with unequal socio-economic preconditions (The Case of Kitui Central District. Bachelor thesis, Sodertons University).

Devkota, S. P & Bagale, S. (2015). Primary education and dropout in Nepal. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(4), 153-157.

Fernandez-Suarez, A., Herrero, J., Juarros-Basterretxea, J. & Rodriguez-Diaz, J. F. (2016). Risk factors for school dropout in sample of juvenile offenders. Front. Psychol.7:1993. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01993

Ghazi, S. R., Ali, R., Shahzad, S., Shahzada, G., & Nawaz, K. (2011). Socio-Economic Factors as a Cause of Children Dropout at Primary Level. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3), 531-531.

Hakielimu (2010). How to ensure educational success for girls: They have the right to complete their studies. Dar es Salaam: Hakielimu.

Kalinga, T. S. (2013). Causes of the Dropout in Secondary School in Tanzania: The Case Study of Mbeya, Dar es Salaam and Kilimanjaro Regions (Doctoral dissertation, The Open University of Tanzania).

Kapur, R. (2018). Factors affecting girl child education. University of Delhi, Department of

Adult, Continuing Education & Extension.

Keraita, J. O. & Gakunga, K. D. (2016). Factors influencing girl’s dropout in public boarding and day secondary school in Masaba north district- Kenya. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, iv (8), 490-507

Küçüker, E. (2018). Reasons for dropout of girls from the formal secondary education living in rural areas. Education and Science, 43(195), 97-117. doi 10.15390/EB.2018.7537

Monga, O. P., Monga, A., & Monga, O. P. (2015). Family and School Dropouts: A Socio-psychological Observation. American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences.

Mutua, K. F. (2014). Household factors influencing students’ dropout in public secondary school (The Case of Kitui Central District. Master’s thesis, The University of Nairobi). Retrieved from http://Monga, O.. Accessed on 16/06/2020 on 10:40am.

Murray, P. (2011). Developing Family Leadership. Centre of welfare reform publishers. Retrieved from Accessed on 26/06/2020 on 12:14pm.

Omollo, A. E. (2013). Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Students Drop Out in Public Secondary Schools in Rongo District, Migori County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi,).

Reynolds, C. M. & John, J. (2012). Core competencies of family leaders: A guide for families and organizations. Kansas City: Missouri Family Resource Center.

Right to Education. (2016). Tanzania Implements Free Education Policy for Secondary Education. Right to Education Initiatives. Retrieved from https://www.right- to- implements- free- education- policy- secondary-education Accessed on 12/06/2020 on 11:50am.

Rumberger, R. W., & Lim, S. A. (2008). Why students drop out of school: A review of 25 years of research.

Rutakinikwa, L. N. (2016). Factors Influencing Secondary School Girls DropOut in Bagamoyo District in Coast Region, Tanzania (Doctoral dissertation, The Open University of Tanzania).

Rwechungura, J. K. (2014). An exploratory study of the factors contributing to school dropout among girls in Temeke district of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (Master's thesis, University of Cape Town).

Sathwika, B. & Reey, G. R. (2019). A study on adolescent girl dropout in Mahabubnagar district of Telangana state,India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 8(2), 474-480.

Subrahmanyam, G. (2016). Gender Perspectives on Causes and Effects of School Dropout. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.

Tanzania Youth Vision Association. (2017). Report of the Survey on Girl’s School Dropout in the Regions of Dodoma, Singida, Lindi and Pwani. Dar es Salaam.

URT (2016). Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania (BEST): National Data, Ministry of Education and Vocational Training. Dar es Salaam. Tanzania.

World Bank. (2019). Tanzania secondary education quality improvement project (SEQUIP). Washington-DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

Zeleke, G. M., Terefe, B., Haile, E. G., & Ejara, H. (2020). Child-Headed Household in Ethiopia-The Case of Addis Ababa City and Adama Town in Ethiopia. International Journal of Social Sciences, 9(2), 87-106.

3 November, 2021
How to Cite
Shoo, A., & Lekule, C. (2021). The Influence of Family Leadership on Girl- Child School Dropout. East African Journal of Education Studies, 4(1), 61-73.