Effectiveness of Non-Governmental Organisations’ Activities in Basic Education in Supporting School Dropped Out Girls in Shinyanga Region, Tanzania

  • Ezekiel Kassanga St. Augustine University of Tanzania
  • Chrispina Lekule St. Augustine University of Tanzania
Keywords: Basic Education, Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs), Pregnant Schoolgirls, Teenage Mothers
Share Article:


This study examined NGOs' effectiveness in supporting teenage mothers who dropped out of schools due to pregnancy to accomplish basic education out of the public school system in Tanzania using Shinyanga region as a case study. The study employed a mixed approach whereby the study population included 10 NGOs, 20 teenage mothers who are supported by NGOs and 20 parents/guardians of the supported teenage mothers. For the purpose of investigation; interviews, questionnaires and documents review were used as instruments. The results of this study indicated that most of the NGOs activities’ such as sensitisation, sponsorship, provision of learning materials and running of learning centres, among others are generally ineffective in enabling the ever-increasing teenage mothers to accomplish basic education out of public school system. Its consequence is the fact that most teenage mothers are left under the plight of ignorance. Thus, recommendations are made for the government, NGOs, parents and community members to admit the fact that pregnancy among school girls is not a crime against morality but a tragedy for girls hence deliberate remedies should be done for enabling them to access basic education after delivery because educating a girl is to educate the nation.


Download data is not yet available.


Aglionby, J. (2017, October 17). Tanzania’s enemies of the state: Pregnant young women. Retrieved on September 18, 2018, from Financial Times, https://www.ft.com/content/c7507730-712c-11e7-93ff-99f383b09ff9

Akunga, A. (2008). Promoting girls’ education: The experience in Nigeria. Nigeria: United Nation Girls Education Initiative.

Clark, C. (1996). UNICEF for beginners. New York, USA: Writers and Readers Publishing, Inc.

EQUIP – Tanzania. (2017). Annual Summary 2016 – 2017: Improving Learning Outcomes, Particularly for Girls. Tanzania: EQUIP

Georgen, R. (2009). PASHA’s contribution to addressing teenage pregnancies in schools in Tanzania. Basel, Switzerland: Swiss Centre for International Health

Haule, G., & Hombo, E. (2017, June 23). JPM: Wanafunzi wanaopata mimba marufuku kurudi shuleni. Retrieved on September 18, 2018, Mtanzania Digital from https://mtanzania.co.tz/jpm-wanafunzi-wanaopata-mimba-marufuku-kurudi-shuleni/

HEART. (2015). Education for pregnant girls and young mothers. Retrieved on February 27, 2019 from https://www.heart-resources.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Education-pregnancy-and-young-mothers-kenya-nigeria-UK-africa-2.pdf

Issah, H. (2012). The role of Non-Governmental Organisations in girl-child education in the Tolon-Kumbungu District of the Northern Region of Ghana (Doctoral dissertation). Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.

Jivani, R. (2010). What are the Impacts of Non-Governmental Organisations on the Lives of the Citizens of Tanzania? University of Pennsylvania.

Kiondo, A., Wallevik, H., & Lange, S. (200). Civil Society in Tanzania. Chr. Michelsen Institute.

Kisanji, J. (2009). CSOs’ performance in education development in Tanzania. Presentation for the Education Sector Review 2009, Waterfront NSSF Building, Dar es Salaam.

Kiseu, G. W. (2012). Non-Governmental Organisations’ Educational Contribution to Needy Primary School Children in Voi Division, Kenya. MED Thesis, Kenyatta University, Kenya.

Lwiza, F. L. (2014). An investigation into the re-entry of learners with disabilities in selected schools in Lusaka province, Zambia. Master’s Thesis. University of Zambia Lusaka.

Mbugua, N. W. (2015). Stakeholders’ Roles in Implementing the Readmission Policy on Adolescent Mothers in Public Secondary Schools in Kikuyu District, Kiambu County, Kenya. Doctoral dissertation, Catholic University Of Eastern Africa.

Mushi, P. A. K. (2009). History and development of education in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Dar es Salaam University Press.

Niskanen, I. (2012). Paying the price of pregnancy–Young mothers’ educational prospects in Tanzania. Retrieved December 20, 2018 from http://www.sh.se/p3/ext/res.nsf/vRes/inst_ f_naturvetenskap_miljooch_teknik_1371125378756_exempel6_pdf/$File/Exempel6.pdf

Omwancha, K. M. (2012). The implementation of an educational re-entry policy for girls after teenage pregnancy: A case study of public secondary schools in the Kuria District, Kenya. Doctoral Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington.

Rose, P. (2009). NGO provision of basic education: alternative or complementary service delivery to support access to the excluded? Compare, 39(2), 219-233.

Shivji, I. G. (2004). Reflections on NGOs in Tanzania: what we are, what we are not, and what we ought to be. Development in Practice, 14(5), 689-695.

Sik, I. (2015). Early Motherhood in Tanzania: Exploring the Education, Health and Employment Challenges of Dar es Salaam’s Adolescent Mothers. Honours dissertation, University of Toronto, Scarborough.

SRHRA & Rutgers. (2016). The Right to Education of Pregnant Girls and Young Mothers: TANZANIA. Tanzania Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Alliance (SRHRA) & Rutgers. Retrieved December 18, 2018, from https://www.rutgers.international/sites/rutgersorg/files/PDF/Advocacy_Tanzania_0.pdf

Swainson, N., Bendera, S., Gordon, R., & Kadzamira, E. (1998). Promoting Girls’ Education in Africa: The Design and Implementation of Policy Interventions. Education Research Paper. London United Kingdom: Department for International Development, Education Division.

Tanzania Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights. (2016). The right to education of pregnant girls and young mothers. Retrieved June 12, 2018, from https://www.rutgers.international/sites/rutgersorg/files/PDF/Advocacy_Tanzania_0.pdf

Tripp, A. M. (2000). Political Reform in Tanzania: The struggle for association autonomy. Retrieved June 06, 2018 from https://ecpr.eu/filestore/paperproposal/5451e271-784f-4f89-9895-3d0dc2da3664.pdf

UNESCO. (2015). Good Practices Tanzania - Providing alternative learning for adolescent mothers: UNESCO

UNICEF. (2003). Girls’ Education in Tanzania. Tanzania: UNICEF

United Republic of Tanzania (URT). (2017). National survey on the drivers and consequences of child marriage in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: United Republic of Tanzania.

Winthrop, R. & King, E. (2015). Today’s challenges for girls’ education. Brookings Global Working Paper Series.

World Health Organization. (2014). Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014. Retrieved June 6, 2018 from https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/649376/retrieve

4 February, 2021
How to Cite
Kassanga, E., & Lekule, C. (2021). Effectiveness of Non-Governmental Organisations’ Activities in Basic Education in Supporting School Dropped Out Girls in Shinyanga Region, Tanzania. East African Journal of Education Studies, 3(1), 14-25. https://doi.org/10.37284/eajes.3.1.269