Principals’ Provision of Professional Development Strategies on Teacher Productivity in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya

  • Moriasi Gari Mount Kenya University
  • Ruth Thinguri, PhD Mount Kenya University
  • Gilbert Nyakundi, PhD Mount Kenya University
Keywords: Improved Teaching Subject Scores, Influence, Professional Development, Provision of Professional Development, Teacher Productivity
Share Article:


There has been a worldwide concern on human relation strategies that are applied in schools by the principals to enable healthy teacher productivity. This research aimed at examining the influence of principals’ professional development strategies on teacher productivity in public secondary schools in Machakos County, Kenya. The study was guided by the human relations theory and the theory of educational productivity. The study adopted mixed methodology and the descriptive correlational designs with concurrent triangulation model. The target population was 4,369, consisting of 4,312 teachers, 291 principals, 18 Sub-County education officers and 10 Teachers’ Service Commission (TSC) officers. The sample size was 490 participants which comprised of 433 teachers and 29 principals that were randomly sampled, 18 Sub-County directors of education and 10 TSC officers who were purposively sampled. Questionnaires were used for teachers and principals. Interview schedules were used for SCDEs and TSC officers. The content validity was established through judgment by educational management experts. Reliability was established using the split-half method. A reliability index of r≥0.75 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha Method, indicating high internal reliability. Data triangulation through multiple analyses ascertained credibility, whereas dependability was established by detailed reporting of each data collection process. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, tables and inferentially using linear regression with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Version 24). Qualitative data was analysed thematically and presented in narrative forms and verbatim citations. The findings established that principals were not significantly using professional development among the schools and thus, affecting teacher productivity in schools in Machakos County. It was recommended that stakeholders in education work together with the schools to improve on professional development in the schools so as to improve teacher productivity


Download data is not yet available.


Adré, P. & Sullivan, D. (2017). Motivating adolescents: High school teachers’ perceptions and classroom practices. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Akala, J., & Maithya, P. (2018). Effects of Teacher Recruitment and Utilization Policy on Quality of Secondary School Education in Kenya. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education, 4(1): 10-17.

Boyle, T. et al. (2015). School Effectiveness and School Improvement. A longitudinal Study of Teacher Change: What makes professional development effective? Report of the second year of the study

Bukola, T. & Subair, S. (2015). Teacher Shortage in Nigerian Schools: Causes, Effects and Principalss Coping Strategies. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, 2(4).

Creswell, J. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Deborah, K. (2019). The Changing Shape of Leadership. Educational Leadership, 59(8): 61.

Du Plooy, K. (2018). Investigating the participation of school management teams in managing the instructional programme: A case study master’s thesis. Pretoria.


Egu, R., Wuju, E. & Chionye, J. (2018). Teacher attrition in Nigerian schools: A case for the ube. Journal of emerging trends in educational research and policy analysis, 2 (2), 108-112.

Galgallo, B. (2019). Factors Influencing Retention of Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Kathiani Sub- County, Machakos County, Kenya. Published Med Thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Hattie, J. & Clinton, J. (2018). Identifying accomplished teachers: A validation study. Assessing teachers for professional certification. The first decade of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 2(11): 313- 344

Jandaya, M. (2017). Influence on working conditions on workers’ performance. USAID Performance indicator journal. Humanitarian rescue mission, Somalia

Kemunto, T. (2017). Factors Affecting Teacher Motivation in Public Secondary Schools in Thika West District, Kiambu County. Unpublished Thesis, Kenyatta University.

Lethoko, T. (2018). The role of the principal teachers and students in restoring the culture of learning, teaching and service in black secondary schools in the Pretoria region. South African Journal of Education, 21 (4): 311- 317.

Marchington, M. (2014). Team working and employee involvement: Terminology, evaluation and context. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Millette, A. (2017). Lectures on Educational Leadership in the Millennium “Professionals, Pedagogy and Leadership”. A lecture given on 3 June 2017.

Ministry of Education (2022). Transfer of teachers in Kenya. Longman Publishers.

Ministry of Education (2022). A report on academic performance of secondary schools. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Moos, L. (2019). Comparing Educational Leadership Research. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 12(3).

Southworth, G. (2018). Instructional leadership in schools: Reflections and empirical

evidence. School leadership and management, 22(1): 73-91.

Villegas-Reimas, E. (2015). Teacher professional development: An international review of the literature. UNESCO. International Institute for Educational Planning.

Walberg, H., (2017). A psychological theory of educational outcomes and productivity. Psychological and Education pp. 81-110.

World Bank (2017). Transitions in Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Equity and Efficiency Issues. World Bank Working Paper 125, Washington DC: World Bank.

22 February, 2024
How to Cite
Gari, M., Thinguri, R., & Nyakundi, G. (2024). Principals’ Provision of Professional Development Strategies on Teacher Productivity in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya. East African Journal of Education Studies, 7(1), 240-252.