Classroom Management Challenges Facing Teachers in Enhancing Students' Academic Achievement in Public Secondary Schools in Tarime District

  • Victoria Yonas St Augustine University of Tanzania
  • Clara Rupia, PhD St Augustine University of Tanzania
  • Daniel Onyango, PhD St Augustine University of Tanzania
Keywords: Teachers, Classroom Management, Academic Achievement, Secondary Schools
Share Article:


This study aimed at finding out the classroom management challenges facing teachers in enhancing students' academic achievement in public secondary schools of Tarime District in Tanzania. A mixed research approach and a convergent parallel design were used. Simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to obtain a sample size of 92 respondents, including teachers, DEO, and HOS. Teachers were polled via questionnaires, while WEO, the heads of schools, and district education officer were polled via interviews. A correlation coefficient of 0.7 demonstrated that the instruments were valid and reliable for data collection. The reliability of research instruments was computed through a split-half coefficient, while content and face validity were achieved through the member checking method by experts from the Faculty of Education. The quantitative data was coded and described statistically with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21 whereas the qualitative data was analysed through thematic analysis. The findings revealed that a shortage of instructional materials, poor professional relationships between teachers and students, and poor classroom management skills were the challenges facing teachers. The study recommended that there was a need for teachers to create a positive professional relationship with their students and adopt different instructional approaches to ensure effective teaching delivery of the content.


Download data is not yet available.


Adamson, R. M. (2013). A comparison of three opportunities to respond strategies across students with emotional and behavioural disorders in high school classrooms (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri--Columbia).

Ashraf, M. A., & Ismat, H. I. (2016). Education and development of Pakistan: A study of current situation of education and literacy in Pakistan. US-China Education Review, 6(11), 647-654.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.

Barrera, A., Braley, R. T., & Slate, J. R. (2010). Beginning teacher success: An investigation into the feedback from mentors of formal mentoring programs. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 18(1), 61-74.

Bear, G. G. (2009). The positive in positive models of discipline. Handbook of positive psychology in schools, 305-321.

Blatchford, P., & Russell, A. (2019). Class size, grouping practices and classroom management. International Journal of Educational Research, 96, 154-163.

Burns, D., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2014). Teaching around the world: What can TALIS tell us.

Chamila, Y. (2019). The Challenges of Classroom Management in Esp. Course Faced by New Instructors (Doctoral dissertation, University of Muhammadiyah Malang).

Charles, A., & Mkulu, D. G. (2020). Management Challenges Facing School Administrators and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Sengerema District Mwanza, Tanzania. International Journal of Humanities and Education Development (IJHED), 2(3), 191-207.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J.D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approach (5thed). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Diana, N. K., Muhammad, Y., & Iftikhar, M. G. (2021). Exploring Teachers Perceptions about Aggressive Classroom Management at Primary Level: A Qualitative Case Study. Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review, 2(2), 386-398.

Egeberg, H. M., McConney, A., & Price, A. (2016). Classroom Management and National Professional Standards for Teachers: A Review of the Literature on Theory and Practice. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(7), 1-18.

Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Routledge.

Freiberg, H. J., Huzinec, C. A., & Borders, K. (2008, March 24e28). The effects of classroom management on student achievement: A study of three inner-city middle schools and their comparison schools. Paper presented at the 2008 American Education Research Association (AERA). Annual Meeting, New York.

Garrett, T. (2014). Effective classroom management: The essentials. Teachers College Press.

Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. (2013). Teaching the Lesson. School and Classroom Organization, 24-68.

Grant, M. C. (2017). A Case Study of Factors That Influenced the Attrition or Retention of Two First-Year Special Education Teachers. Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals, 77, 84.

Hipolite, J. (2019). Teachers’ Strategies in Addressing Challenges of Implementing Competence-Based Curriculum (Masters Dissertation, Mzumbe University).

Hussein, A. (2019). Classroom Management Challenges and its Solutions: Implication for Secondary Schools. International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies, 18(1), 31-43.

Hussein, N., & Albakri, I. S. M. A. (2019). The role of strategies on developing Iraqi learners’ usage of request in EFL classroom. International Journal of English, Literature and Social Science, 4(5), 1337-1341.

John, E. (2014). Effects of classroom management on the academic performance of students. management.

Kaliska, P. (2002). A Comprehensive Study Identifying the Most Effective Classroom Management Techniques and Practices (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Stout).

Korpershoek, H., Harms, T., de Boer, H., van Kuok, M., & Dotard, S. (2016). A meta-analysis of the effects of classroom management strategies and classroom management programs on students’ academic, behavioural, emotional, and motivational outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 86(3), 643-680.

Lebor, M. (2017). Classroom Behaviour Management in the Post-School Sector: Student and Teacher Perspectives on the Battle Against Being Educated. Springer.

Lyons, G., Arthur-Kelly, M., & Ford, M. (2015). The Lyford Model of Classroom Management: Authentication through Continuing “Reflections from the Field”. Creative Education, 6(19), 2063.

Macias, D. F., & Sánchez, J. A. (2015). Classroom management: A persistent challenge for pre-service foreign language teachers. Profile Issues in Teachers Professional Development, 17(2), 81-99.

Maro, R. (2017). The Factors Hindering Effective Teachers’ Classroom Management in Tanzanian Public Secondary Schools in Tarime District.

Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). (2020). Certificate of Secondary Education Results in Tanzania. MEST.

Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). (2021). Certificate of Secondary Education Results in Tanzania. MEST.

Nath, S. (2015). Classroom Management in Medak, Telangana: Challenges and solutions. Nigerian publishers.

Oliver, R. M. & Daniel, J. R. (2007). Effective classroom management: teacher preparation and professional development. National Comprehensive Centre for Teacher Quality.

Omenka, J. E., &Otor, E. E. (2015). Influence of classroom management on students’ academic achievement in science and mathematics. Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. Benue state university, 4 (4), 36-40. volume/volume-1020.pdf.

Osakwe, R. N. & Osakwe, C. L. (2015). Challenges of effective classroom management and control. International Journal of Education and Research, 3(1).

Romi, S., & Roache, J. (2012). Excluding students from classroom: Teacher techniques that promote student responsibility. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(6), 870-878.

Romi, S., Lewis, R., & Katz, Y. (2009). Student responsibility and classroom discipline in Australia, China and Israel. Compare, 39(4), 439e452.

Sabaduquia, L. & Bulat-ag, J. (2017). Classroom Issues and its Solution. Department of Science and Mathematics. Mindanao State University- Iligan Institute of Technology.

Saga, W. M. (2014). Access and Quality Challenges Facing Community Secondary Schools (Masters Dissertation, Open University of Tanzania).

Saleem, A., Muhammad, Y., & Masood, S. (2020). Classroom management challenges and administrative support in elementary schools: Experiences of novice public-school teachers. UMT Education Review, 3(2), 29-46.

Savage, T. V, & Savage, M.K. (2009). Successful Classroom Management and Discipline: Teaching Self-Control and Responsibility. (3rd edition). Sage Publications, Inc.

Scarlett, G. (2014). Classroom management & student behaviour. In W. G. Scarlett (Eds.), The SAGE Encyclopaedia of Classroom Management (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 377- 379). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications Inc.

Siddiqui, M. F., Arif, M., & Muhammad, Y. (2020). A Maintaining Discipline in Private Primary Schools in the Wake of Ban on Corporal Punishment: A Qualitative Case Study of Teachers’ Perspectives. Kashmir Journal of Education, 2(I), 1-25.

Soko, M. V. (2014). Professional development: The experiences of primary school teachers in Tanzania. Abo Akademi University.

Soleimani, N., & Razmjoo, A. (2016). Classroom Management Challenges: An Account of EFL Teachers at Private Language Institutes. Anatolian Journal of Education, 1(1), 51-69.

Tahir, A., & Amin Qadir, S. (2012). Challenges of classroom management to effective teacher socialization: a study of beginning English teachers. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS), 32(1).

16 January, 2023
How to Cite
Yonas, V., Rupia, C., & Onyango, D. (2023). Classroom Management Challenges Facing Teachers in Enhancing Students’ Academic Achievement in Public Secondary Schools in Tarime District. East African Journal of Education Studies, 6(1), 22-37.