Sustainable Integrative Framework for Biodiversity Conservation and Pastoralists’ Resilience to Impact of Climate Change in Northern Tanzania Rangelands
This study aimed at developing a sustainable integrative framework for biodiversity conservation and pastoralists’ resilience to impacts of climate change (SIBCPRF) The SIBCPRF was developed after assessing the impacts with a high rate on the pastoralists in northern Tanzania rangelands. The study used different approaches and methods for data collection: exploration of secondary information, observation, household survey, structured interview and focus group discussion. The sample included 312 respondents. The study revealed that climate change has impacted the biodiversity and pastoralists’ livelihoods in many ways like shortage of water, death of livestock, the rise of conflicts, and migration. In turn, the study discovered that the pastoralists have been adapting and resilient to the impact of climate change by adopting various strategies like control of animal reproduction, use of by-laws, use of ingaron system (enclosure of a place for some time), and migration from one place to another with livestock for the search of pasture and water. However, the strategy seems to have shortcomings such as to cause of conflict with neighbours, farmers, separation of families, and death of livestock due to a long walk distance. The study concludes that it is important for the pastoralists’ communities to resilient and adapt to impacts of climate change so as to conserve the biodiversity and for their well-being. This can only be done if there is a clear tool guiding them on how to sustainably resilient and adapt. It is from this perspective the SIBCPRF was developed to properly address the highest-rated impacts of climate change during dry seasons. The SIBCPRF to climate change developed considered Ecosystem-based Approach (EbA), Impact Specific Approach (ISA), and the Enclosure System (ES). The formulation of SIBCPRF assumes that it is the role of each community to address climate change risks by implementing the appropriate strategies and plans provided to them (pastoralists).
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