Suggesting Creoles as the Media of Instruction in Formal Education

  • Ekiyokere Ekiye Federal University Otuoke
Keywords: Pidgin, Creole, Attitudes, Education, Literacy, Standardisation

Abstract

Creole and Pidgin languages are spoken by not less than 50 million people around the globe, but literacy is usually acquired in other languages, especially those languages introduced by the former colonial powers. This paper suggests that Pidgin and Creole languages should be elaborated for use as the media of instruction in formal education, particularly in contexts where up to 85 per cent of the population speak them. Pidgins and creoles researchers have labelled pidgin and creole languages as “developing” and they highlight their capacity to perform the same functions as their developed European lexifiers, English and French. The central argument is that pidgin and creole languages have the potential to express complex realities and function officially in formal education despite the negative attitudes towards them by their speakers. The attitudes towards pidgin and creole languages in education, the part of political and linguistic entities in adopting Nigerian Pidgin and Mauritian Kreol as the medium of teaching literacy in their respective countries are the central issues of focus.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ah Nee, G. (2002). Kifer Kreol. Le Mauricien, 14.

Devonish, H. (1986a). Language and Liberation: Creole Language Politics in the Caribbean. London: Karia Press.

Devonish, H. (1986b). The Decay of Neo-colonial Official Language Policies: The Case of the English lexicon Creoles of the Commonwealth Caribbean. In: Görlach and Holm (eds.). Focus on the Caribbean. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Deuber, D. (2005). Nigerian Pidgin in Lagos: Language contact, variation and change in an African urban setting. London: Battlebridge Publications.

Deuber, D. & Hinrichs, L. (2007). Dynamics of orthographic standardization in Jamaican Creole and Nigeria Pidgin. World Englishes, 26 (1), 22–47.

Elugbe, B. and Omamor, A. (1991). Nigerian Pidgin: Background and prospects. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books.

Essien, O. E. (2003). The minority question revisited. In: Ndimele, O. (ed.) Four Decades in the Study of Languages and Linguistics in Nigeria: A Festschrift for Kay Williamson (p.27–37). Aba: National Institute for Nigerian Languages.

Ehrhart, S. et al. (2006). Pidgins and Creoles between endangerment and empowerment: a dynamic view of empowerment in the growth and the decline of contact languages, especially in the Pacific. In: Martin, P., Fishman, A. and Aertelaer, J. (eds.) Along the Routes to Power: Explorations of Empowerment through Language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 129–55.

Egbokhare, F. O. (2001). The Nigerian linguistic ecology and the changing profiles of Nigerian Pidgin. In: Igboanusi, H. (ed.) Language attitude and language conflict in West Africa (p. 105–24). Ibadan: Enicrownfit.

Eriksen, T. H. (1990). Linguistic diversity and the quest for national identity: The case of Mauritius. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 13 (1), 1-24.

Hall, R. A. Jr. (1955). Hands of Pidgin English. Sidney: Pacific Publications.

Hall, R. A. Jr. (1966). Pidgin and Creole Languages. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

Howe, K. (1993). Haitian Creole as the official language in Education and the Media. In: Bryn, F. and Holm, J. (eds.) Atlantic Meets Pacific: A Global View of Pidginization and Creolization (p. 291-297), Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Igboanusi, H. (1997). Language and Nationalism: The future of English in Nigeria’s Language Policies. Journal of Social and Cultural Studies, 1(2), 21-34.

Jibril, M. (1995). The elaboration of the functions of Nigerian Pidgin. In: Bamgbose, A., Banjo, A. and Thomas, A. (eds.) New Englishes: A West African perspective (p. 232–47), Ibadan: Mosuro.

Michaelis, S. M. et al (Eds.). (2013). The survey of Pidgin and Creole languages (Vol. 1). Oxford University Press.

Ministry of Education and Human Resources. (2014). Education reforms in action 2008 2014. Retrieved on December 20, 2015, from the Ministry of Education and Human Resources from http://ministryeducation.govmu.org/English//DOCUMENTS/EDUCATION%20REORT%20IN%20ACTION.

Migge, B., Léglise, I., & Bartens, A. (2010). Creoles in education. A discussion of pertinent issues. In: Migge, B., Léglise, I., & Bartens, A. (eds), Creoles in Education: a Critical Assessment and Comparison of Existing Projects, (p. 1-30): John Benjamins

Mühlhäusler, P. (1997). Pidgins and Creole Linguistics: Expanded and Revised Edition. London: Basil Blackwell.

Ndolo, I. S. (1989). The case for promoting the Nigerian Pidgin language. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 27(4), 679-684.

Shah-Sanghavi, P. K. (2017). Should creoles be made official languages and/or media of instruction in countries where they are the first language of the majority of the population? IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 22 (10), 19-25.

Rajah-Carrim, A. (2005). Language use and attitudes in Mauritius based on 2000 population census. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 28 (4), 317-332.

Rajah-Carrim, A. (2007). Mauritian Creole and language attitudes in the Education system of multiethnic and multilingual Mauritius. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 28 (1), 51-71.

Sebba, M. (1997). Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles. New York: Palgrave.

Siegel, J. (1993). Pidgins and Creoles in Education in Australia and the Southwest Pacific. In: Bryn, F. and Holm, J. (eds.) Atlantic Meets Pacific: A global view of Pidginization and Creolization (p.299-308). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Siegel, J. (1997). Using a Pidgin language in formal Education: Help or hindrance? Applied Linguistics, 18 (1), 86-100.

Siegel, J. (2002). Pidgins and Creoles. In: Kaplan, R. (ed.) Handbook of Applied Linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press, (p.335-351).

Siegel, J. (2005). Literacy in Pidgin and Creole Languages. Current Issues in Language Planning, 6 (2), 146-163.

Schneider, B. (2005). Linguistic Human Rights and Migrant Languages. English and American Studies in German, 2005(2005).

Taiwo, R. (2009). The functions of English in Nigeria from earliest times to the present day. English Today 25 (2), 3-9.

Todd, L. (1990). Pidgins and Creoles. London: Routledge.

Virahsawmy, D. (2002). Literesi an Morisien, Rose-Hill: Linprimri HS3.

Wolf, H. and Igboanusi, H. (2006). Empowerment through English − a realistic view of the educational promotion of English in post-colonial contexts: the example of Nigeria. In: Martin, P., Fishman, J. and Neff, J. (eds.) Along the routes to power: Explorations of empowerment through language (p. 333-356). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Published
14 June, 2020
How to Cite
Ekiye, E. (2020). Suggesting Creoles as the Media of Instruction in Formal Education. East African Journal of Education Studies, 2(1), 47-58. https://doi.org/10.37284/eajes.2.1.167