Influence of Control Systems on Internal Efficiency in Public Secondary Schools in Nakuru County, Kenya

  • Eliud K. Korir Mount Kenya University
  • Paul Edabu Muni University
  • Peter C. Mungai Egerton University
Keywords: Control Systems, Internal Efficiency, Performance and Secondary Schools
Share Article:


Even though every public secondary school in Nakuru County, Kenya, has adopted strategic plans, internal inefficiencies in the form of poor academic performance and a low student transition rate exist. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the influence of control systems on internal efficiency in public secondary schools in Nakuru County, Kenya. This research study was guided by the 7-S model developed by McKinsey, the 10-step model developed by Bryson, and the system theory developed by Von Bertanlanffy. This study employed a mixed approach and concurrent triangulation design. The study sought responses from a target population of 311 public secondary school teachers in Nakuru County, 311 principals and 11 sub-county education officials. Using stratified random sampling a total of 240 teachers, principals, and sub-county education officers were included in the sample. The study utilised questionnaires, document analysis, and interview schedules. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was 0.76, indicating reliability. Data was analysed descriptively using SPSS (version 23). The study also employed inferential statistics, such as regression analysis and Pearson correlations. Results are presented using bar graphs, pie charts, and frequency distribution tables. The control system positively impacted the schools’ internal efficiency despite the fact that most of the public secondary schools in Nakuru County had subpar supervision. According to the findings of this research, the Ministry of Education should conduct more frequent checks on implementing the control strategy to improve the organisation’s overall efficiency


Download data is not yet available.


Adams, J., Wickstrom, S., Burgess, M., Lee, P. & Escarce, J. (2003). Sampling Patients within Physician Practices and Health Plans: Multistage Cluster Samples in Health Services Research. The Global Journal for Improving Health Care Delivery and Policy. 38(1), 1625-1640.

Akinfolarin, C., Babalola, C., & Aladetan, F. (2016). Academic supervision a correlate of student academic performance in secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria: International of Educational Policy Research and Review, 4(1), 8-13.

Bitange, R., Muthoni, C., & Irungu, I. (2013). The Effect of Benchmarking on Performance in Secondary Schools in Nakuru Municipality. International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering.

Borg, W. & Gall, M. (1989). Education Research: An Introduction. 4th Edition, New York: Longman Inc.

Bryson, J. (2004).Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organisations: A guide to strengthening and sustaining organisational achievement (3rd ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Dinham, S. (2005). Principal leadership for outstanding educational outcomes. Journal of educational administration.

Dinu, D. (2007). General secretariat of the government of Romania. Material from the Conference on Good Governance and Public Administration Reforms. Bucharest, Romania. December 6, 2007

Ferreira, A., & Otley, D. (2006). The design and use of performance management systems: an extended framework for analysis. Management Accounting Research, 20(4), 263-282.

Government of Kenya. (2009). Public Sector Performance Contracting; Strategic Plan. Nairobi, Kenya; Government Press.

Hunger, J. & Wheelen, T. (2011). Essentials of Strategic Management, 5th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Kabeer, N. (2005). Gender equality and women’s empowerment: A critical analysis of the third-millennium development goal 1. Gender & Development, 13(1), 13-24.

Kache, S. S. (2018). Influence of strategic plan implementation on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Marsabit central sub-county, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Kajilwa, G. (2017, February 11). Teacher Appraisal Kick off Across the Country. Retrieved on 21/11/2017, from

Kamau, J. (2009). Negative attitude and its hindrance on effective implementation of school rules and regulations in secondary schools in Kenya, case study of Kiambaa Constituency, Central Province. University of Nairobi: Unpublished M. Ed Thesis.

Kaplan, R. (2005) How the balanced scorecard complements the McKinsey 7-S model, Strategy & Leadership, 33(3), 41-46.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2009). Kenya Population and Housing Census, Volume II; Distribution of Population by Administrative Unit; KNBS, Nairobi.

Kinuthia, D. (2012). Strategic Evaluation Practices Adopted by Insurance Firms in Nairobi, Kenya. University of Nairobi, Unpublished MBA Project.

Kiprop, C. J., Bomett, E. J., & Jelimo, J. M. (2015). Strategic planning in public secondary schools in Kenya: Challenges and mitigations. International Journal of Advanced Research in Education & Technology (IJARET), 2(4), 52-57.

Kombo, K. & Tromp, D. (2006). Proposal and thesis writing. Nairobi, Kenya: Paulines Publications Africa.

Lunenburg, F. (2011). Goal-Setting Theory of Motivation. International Journal of Management, Business and Administration, 15 (1), 1-6.

Maria, B. & Aperecido, T. (2014). Evaluation of Management Control Systems in a Higher Education Institution with Performance Management and Control.

McKinsey & Company (1982). The 7s model. http://www.value based, July 2016.

Mugenda, O. & Mugenda, A. (1999). Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) Press

Muhammad, F. (2013). Role of Performance Appraisal System on Employees Motivation. Journal of Business and Management, 8 (4), 66-83.

Muricho, W. P., & Chang’ach, J. K. (2013). Education reforms in Kenya for Innovation.

Ndiritu, M. (2007). Effectiveness of Cash budgeting in public institution. An unpublished MBA project, University of Nairobi.

Norlin, J. (2009). Human behaviour and the social environment: Social systems theory. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon.

Nzoka, J. T., & Orodho, J. A. (2014). School management and students’ academic performance: How effective are strategies being employed by school managers in secondary schools in Embu North District, Embu County, Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and social science, 4(9), 86-99.

Onkundi, N. N. (2015). Strategic planning and performance of public secondary schools in Kajiado north sub-county, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Pearce, J. & Robinson Jr, B. (2011). Strategic Management: Formulation, implementation and control, 12th ed, MC Grawl Hill. International edition.

Pearson, J. & Robinson, R. (2007). Strategic management: Formulation, implementation, and control (10th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Scott, R. (2008). Organisations and organising: Rational, natural, and open systems perspectives. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Shahin, B. (2011). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategic Planning within the Middle Eastern Public Sector. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.

Thuranira, N. M., & Mwangi, B. N. (2018). Influence of Strategic Plans Execution on Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Tigania West Sub County, Kenya. Journal of Education and Practices ISSN 2617-5444 (ONLINE) & ISSN 2617-6874 (PRINT), 1(1), 13-20.

UNESCO. (2010). Strategic Planning Organizational Arrangement, Educational Sector Working Paper 2, International Institute for Educational Planning, Paris.

Vieira, R., Major, M. & Robalo, R. (2009). Investigação qualitativa em Contabilidade. In: Major, M. J., & Vieira, R. (Ed.). Contabilidade e controlo de gestão:mteoria, metodologia e prática. Lisboa: Escolar Editora. 2009. pp 301-331.

Wafula, D. & Okibo, W. (2014). Influence of Strategic Planning on Academic Performance: A case of public secondary schools in Kimilili, Bungoma District. International Journal of Innovative Research & Development .3(3).

9 October, 2023
How to Cite
Korir, E., Edabu, P., & Mungai, P. (2023). Influence of Control Systems on Internal Efficiency in Public Secondary Schools in Nakuru County, Kenya. East African Journal of Education Studies, 6(3), 107-120.