Play with Painting & Clay: A Re-Booth of Psychoanalysis Healing on a Child Affected By COVID-19
The world is awakening to the nursing of devastating COVID-19 pandemic effects that resulted in the closure of school among others. Children’s welfare, especially playing was obstructed due to COVID-19 pandemic protective and preventive measures set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other health agencies. Child’s development experts asserted that if a child is inhibited to playing, there are bound to be psychosocial consequences for early childhood development. Educationists together with therapists have applauded the role play with any art forms goings beyond recreation to an expression of their desires, traumas, and elaboration of their conflicts and emotional healing. This paper has established the psychoanalysis and therapeutic process of a child affected by the COVID-19 pandemic while playing with paintings and clay. The researcher explored desktop descriptive qualitative research design. The psychoanalysis instrumentation was employed to evaluate the literature reviews, theoretical framework on its discussion. The paper has accepted the ravages caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and proposes to education stakeholders to consider playing with paintings and clay to playing groups or pre-schoolers as mitigation measures for a child affected by COVID-19. It has recommended an actual implementation of the study in the post-COVID-19 period once schools open to ascertain its validity.
Berk, R. J. (1989). “Differential aspects of psychoanalysis of the aged”: Discussion. Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy, 7(1), 44–48.
Botelho, F. (2015). Playing Children: Realities Created through the work of play. Department of Anthropology, Copenhagen University.
Bremmer, C. (2002). Does stress damage the brain? New York: Norton Professional Books.
Carey, L. (2006). Expressive and creative arts methods for trauma survivors. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Cassou, M. (2001). Point Zero: Creativity without limits. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.
Daykin, N., Orme, J., Evans, D., Salmon, D., McEachran, M.,&Brain, S. (2008). The impact of participation in performing arts on adolescent health and behaviour a systematic review of the literature. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(2), 251–264.
EdTech Hub. (2020). The Effect of Covid-19 on Education in Africa and its Implications for the Use of Technology. A Survey of the Experience and Opinions of Educators and Technology Specialists. EdTech Hub
Ford, J., & Cloitre, M. (2009). Best practices in psychotherapy for children and adolescents. In C. Courtois & J. Ford (Eds.), Treating complex traumatic stress disorder: An evidence-based guide. New York: Guilford.
Gergen, K. J. (2012). Toward transformation in social knowledge. Springer Science & Business
Gil, E. (2003). Chapter 12: Art and play therapy with sexually abused children. In Malchiodi, C. A. (Eds), Handbook of Art Therapy (pp. 152-166). New York: Guilford Press.
Greenwald, R. (2014). Child trauma handbook: A guide for helping trauma-exposed children and adolescents. Routledge.
Hau, S. & Marianne, B. (Eds). (2000). Psychoanalytic Therapy. German Society for Psychoanalysis.
Kendall-Tackett, K. A., Williams, L. M., & Finkelhor, D. (1993). Impact of sexual abuse on children: a review and synthesis of recent empirical studies. Psychological Bulletin, 113(1), 164–180.
Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (2017). Education System - 2-6-3-3-3. Basic Education Framework Curriculum; Competence Base Curriculum. Nairobi: Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development.
Klorer, P. G. (2005). Expressive therapy with severely maltreated children: Neuroscience contributions. Art therapy, 22(4), 213-220.
Lark-Horovitz, B. (1967). Understanding children’s art for better teaching. C. E. Merrill Books
Lieberman, M. D., Eisenberger, N. I., Crockett, M. J., Tom, S. M., Pfeifer, J. H., & Way, B. M. (2007). Affect labeling disrupts amygdala activity in response to affective stimuli. Psychological Science, 18(5), 421-428.
Malchiodi, C. A. (2002). Psychoanalytic, Analytic, and Object Relations Approaches. Boston: Shambhala
Martin, N. (2009). Art as an Early Intervention Tool for Children with Autism. London: Jessica Kingsley
McArdle, P., Moseley, D., Quibell, T., Johnson, R., Allen, A., Hammal, D., & LeCouteur, A. (2002). School‐based indicated prevention: a randomised trial of group therapy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(6), 705–712.
Mclead, S. (2020). Defense Mechanisms. Retrieved on October 2020 from Simply psychology, https://www.simplypsychology.org/defense-mechanisms.html.
McNamee, C. M. (2004). Using both sides of the brain: Experiences that integrate art and talk therapy through scribble drawings. Art Therapy, 21(3), 136-142.
McNamee, C. M. (2006). Experiences with bilateral art: A retrospective study. Art Therapy, 23(1), 7-13.
Miller, R. J., & Johnson, D. R. (2012). The capacity for symbolization in posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(1), 112.
Muyanja, M. (2011). Art and Design: A comprehensive guide for creative artists.
Nandkar, R. S. (2020). To Study the Effect of Lockdown on Physical, Mental and Emotional Health of Common People. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology (5)6, 777-785.
Ngwacho, A. G. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic impact on Kenyan education sector: learner challenges and mitigations. Journal of Research Innovation and Implications in Education, 4(2), 128-139.
O’Brien, F. (2004). The making of mess in art therapy: attachment, trauma and the brain. International Journal of Art Therapy, 9(1), 2–13.
Ogutu, W. (2020). The Dynamics of Art and Craft Curriculum in Enhancing Child Growth and Development. East African Journal of Education Studies, 2(1), 18-24.
Peloquin, S. M. (1996). Art: An occupation with promise for developing empathy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 50(8), 655-661.
Rothschild, B. (2000). The body remembers. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Rousseau, C., Benoit, M., Gauthier, M., Lacroix, L., Alain, N., Rojas, M. V., Moran, A., & Bourassa, D. (2007). Classroom drama therapy program for immigrant and refugee adolescents: a pilot study. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12(3), 451–465.
Ruppert, N. (2002). Critical Evidence: How the Arts Benefit Student Achievement. Washington, DC: AEP.
Schirmacher, R. (2002). Art and creative development for young children (4th Edition). Albany, NY: Delmar Thomson Learning
Schleicher, A. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on education insights from education at a glance 2020. Paris, France: OECD
Schwartzman, H. (1978). Transformations: The Anthropology of Children’s Play. New York: Plenum Press.
Shaffer, D. R. & Kip, K., (2007) Development of Psychological Childhood and Adolescence. John Wiley & Sons.
Solomon, M. F., & Siegel, D. (2003). Healing trauma attachment, mind, body, and brain. New York: W.W. Norton.
Steele, W. (2003). Helping traumatised children. In S. Straussner & N. Phillips (Eds.), Understanding Mass Violence. New York: Allyn and Bacon.
Stuckey, H. L., & Nobel, J. (2010). The connection between art, healing, and public health: A review of current literature. American journal of public health, 100(2), 254-263.
Talwar, S. (2007). Accessing traumatic memory through art making: An art therapy trauma protocol (ATTP). The Arts in Psychotherapy, 34(1), 22-35.
Turner, V. (1992). The Anthropology of Performance. New York: PAJ Publications
UNICEF. (2020). COVID-19: Are children able to continue learning during school closures?A global analysis of the potential reach of remote learning policies. New York, NY: UNICEF Data and Analytics Section
United Nations. (2020). Policy brief: Education During Covid-19 and Beyond. United Nations
Van der Kolk, B. A. (1994). The body keeps the score: Memory and the evolving psychobiology of posttraumatic stress. Harvard review of psychiatry, 1(5), 253-265.
Van der Kolk, B. A. (2002). Assessment and treatment of complex PTSD. Treating trauma survivors with PTSD, 127–156.
Van der Kolk, B.A. (2003). Frontiers in trauma treatment. Presented at the R. Cassidy Seminars, St. Louis, MO, 2004.
Van Nijnatten, C.,& van Doorn, F. (2007). Creating communication: self-examination as a therapeutic method for children. Journal of Social Work Practice, 21(3), 337–346.
Waller, D. (2006). Art therapy for children: how it leads to change. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 11(2), 271–282.
Wambugu, J. (2015). Effects of Drawing Approach and Class Setting on Symbolism of Children’s Drawings on Conflict Experiences: A Study of Primary School Pupils in Nairobi County, Kenya. Unpublished PhD. Thesis, Kenyatta University
Zaidel, D. W. (2015). Neuropsychology of art: Neurological, cognitive, and evolutionary perspectives, 2nd edition. Oxon, OX: Routledge.
Copyright (c) 2021 Ogutu Wanyama
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.