Factor Influencing Adaptation Choices Employed by Farmers Against Climate Change to Improve Rice Yield in Bugarama Wetland in Rwanda

  • Esther Nyirandorimana Kenyatta University
  • Ezekiel Ndunda, PhD Kenyatta University
  • John Muriuki, PhD Kenyatta University
Keywords: Climate Change, Perception, Adaptation, Heckman Two-Step Model, Bugarama Wetland
Share Article:


The changing climate poses a great challenge to many wetlands productivity worldwide. Rice production in wetlands is a major source of livelihood in developing countries such as Rwanda. This study aimed at determining the factors influencing adaptation methods when farmers perceive the changing climate at Bugarama Wetland Rice Scheme in Rwanda. A descriptive research design was used by this study, whereby quantitative and qualitative data was collected. The analysis was based on data collected from 300 selected farmers using systematic random sampling method. We employed descriptive statistics to assess how farmers perceive the effects of climate change and descriptively measured the new adaptation methods used by farmers in Bugarama to increase their yields. The study adopted Heckman two-step model to determine factors that influence adaptation choices, this analysis procedurally required farmers’ knowledge of perception that makes them respond to the effects of changes in climatic conditions by the use of new adaptation methods. The results deduced that level of education (p =0.019), extension access (p=0.001), market distance (p=0.002) and rice income (p < 0.001) had a probability of influencing farmers perceptions about climate change thus need to adapt. Based on the outcome model, results showed that extension access (p < 0.001), household size (p= 0.098), market distance (p= 0.047), rice income (p =0.032), farmers-to-farmers contact (p < 0.001) and effects of climate change on rice (p=0.038) had a greater probability of influencing farmers choice of adaptation method used to improve rice yields. To conclude, the study found that access to informational facilities and rice income, influenced farmers’ perceptions while extension access, rice income, market distance, farmers-to-farmers contact and effects of climate change on rice yield strongly had a probability of determining farmers’ choice of adaptation. This study recommends that the Rwandan government and local administrators need to develop a strategy that would allow farmers to access information facilities about new technology so as to adapt to the effects of climate change thus improve their rice yields.


Download data is not yet available.


Adego, T., Simane, B., & Woldie, G. A. (2019). The impact of adaptation practices on crop productivity in northwest Ethiopia: an endogenous switching estimation. Development Studies Research, 6(1), 129–141. https://doi.org/10.1080/21665095.2019.1678186

Alemayehu, A., & Bewket, W. (2017). Determinants of smallholder farmers’ choice of coping and adaptation strategies to climate change and variability in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Environmental Development, 24, 77–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENVDEV.2017.06.006

Ali, A., & Erenstein, O. (2017). Assessing farmer use of climate change adaptation practices and impacts on food security and poverty in Pakistan. Climate Risk Management, 16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2016.12.001

Amare, A., & Simane, B. (2017). Determinants of smallholder farmers’ decision to adopt adaptation options to climate change and variability in the Muger Sub basin of the Upper Blue Nile basin of Ethiopia. Agriculture and Food Security, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-017-0144-2

Ansari, M. A., Joshi, S., & Raghuvanshi, R. (2018). Understanding farmers perceptions about climate change: a study in a North Indian State, 1, 85–89. https://doi.org/10.30881/aaeoa.00015

Asrat, P., & Simane, B. (2018). Farmers’ perception of climate change and adaptation strategies in the Dabus.

Barayandema, J., Manzi, O., & Umuhoza, G. (2017). Rice farming and income distribution along the value chain in, 7(3).

Belay, A., Recha, J. W., Woldeamanuel, T., & Morton, J. F. (2017). Smallholder farmers’ adaptation to climate change and determinants of their adaptation decisions in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Agriculture and Food Security, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-017-0100-1

Berhanu, W., & Beyene, F. (2015). Climate variability and household adaptation strategies in southern Ethiopia. Sustainability (Switzerland), 7(6). https://doi.org/10.3390/su7066353

Celia Reyes, Joel Bancolita, N. L. L. and S. J. C. (2014). Impacts of Climate Change on Household Food Security in the Philippines, (December 2014), 1–106.

Deressa, T. T., Hassan, R. M., Ringler, C., Alemu, T., & Yesuf, M. (2009). Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change, 19(2), 248–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.01.002

Enete, A. A. (2013). Challenges of agricultural adaptation to climate change: The case of cassava post-harvest in Southeast Nigeria. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCCSM-08-2012-0045

Ferdushi, Ismail, & Kamil. (2019). Perceptions, Knowledge and Adaptation About Climate Change: A Study on Farmers of Haor Areas After a Flash Flood in Bangladesh. Climate, 7(7), 85. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7070085

Garcia, O. A. (2015). Republic of Rwanda Support Project for the Strategic Plan for the Transformation of Agriculture PROJECT PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT, (March).

Gupta, A. K., Negi, M., Nandy, S., Alatalo, J. M., Singh, V., & Pandey, R. (2019). Assessing the vulnerability of socio-environmental systems to climate change along an altitude gradient in the Indian Himalayas Assessing the vulnerability of socio-environmental systems to climate change along an altitude gradient in the Indian Himalayas. Ecological Indicators, 106(July), 105512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105512

Hamza, I., & Iyela, A. (2012). Land Use Pattern, Climate Change, and Its Implication for Food Security in Ethiopia: A Review. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v5i1.4

Heckman, J. J. (1979). The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models, 475–492. Retrieved from https://econpapers.repec.org/RePEc:nbr:nberch:10491#.XezoVOAAIk8.mendeley

Kabubo-mariara, J. (2006). The Economic Impact of Climate Change on Kenyan Crop Agriculture: A Ricardian Approach *.

Khanal, U., Wilson, C., Lee, B. L., & Hoang, V. N. (2018). Climate change adaptation strategies and food productivity in Nepal: a counterfactual analysis. Climatic Change. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-018-2214-2

Khatri-Chhetri, A., Aggarwal, P. K., Joshi, P. K., & Vyas, S. (2017). Farmers’ prioritization of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) technologies. Agricultural Systems, 151, 184–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2016.10.005

Lamboll, R., Stathers, T., & Morton, J. (2017). Climate Change and Agricultural Systems. In Agricultural Systems: Agroecology and Rural Innovation for Development: Second Edition. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802070-8.00013-X

Mabuku, M. P., Senzanje, A., Mudhara, M., Jewitt, G. P. W., & Mulwafu, W. O. (2019). Strategies for coping and adapting to flooding and their determinants: A comparative study of cases from Namibia and Zambia. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 111, 20–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PCE.2018.12.009

Mase, A. S., Gramig, B. M., & Prokopy, L. S. (2017). Climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and adaptation behavior among Midwestern U.S. crop farmers. Climate Risk Management, 15, 8–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2016.11.004

Mashizha, T. M. (2019). Adapting to climate change: Reflections of peasant farmers in Mashonaland West Province of Zimbabwe. Jàmbá Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 11(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v11i1.571

Mikémina, P. (2013). Climate Change Impact on Togo’s Agriculture Performance: A Ricardian Analysis Based on Time Series Data. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. https://doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v6i4.7

Mikova, K., Makupa, E., & Kayumba, J. (2015). Effect of Climate Change on Crop Production in Rwanda, 4(3), 120–128. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.earth.20150403.15

Moroda, G. T., Tolossa, D., & Semie, N. (2018). Perception and adaptation strategies of rural people against the adverse effects of climate variability: A case study of Boset District, East Shewa, Ethiopia. Environmental Development, 27, 2–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENVDEV.2018.07.005

Moshi, A., & Isinika, A. (2016). Climate Variability and Farm Technology Adoption Decisions among Smallholder Farmers in Pangani River Basin. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 7(2), 18–24.

Mulwa, C., Marenya, P., Rahut, D. B., & Kassie, M. (2017). Response to climate risks among smallholder farmers in Malawi: A multivariate probit assessment of the role of information, household demographics, and farm characteristics. Climate Risk Management, 16, 208–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crm.2017.01.002

Ojo, T. O., & Baiyegunhi, L. J. S. (2019). Determinants of climate change adaptation strategies and its impact on the net farm income of rice farmers in south-west Nigeria. Land Use Policy, 103946. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.LANDUSEPOL.2019.04.007

Omondi, P. A. o., Awange, J. L., Forootan, E., Ogallo, L. A., Barakiza, R., Girmaw, G. B., … Komutunga, E. (2014). Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes over the Greater Horn of Africa region from 1961 to 2010. International Journal of Climatology, 34(4), 1262–1277. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3763

Onyekuru, N. A., & Marchant, R. (2016). Assessing the economic impact of climate change on forest resource use in Nigeria: A Ricardian approach. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 220, 10–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AGRFORMET.2016.01.001

Onyeneke, R. U. (2019). Does climate change adaptation lead to increased productivity of rice production? Lessons from Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742170519000486

Phinzi, K., Silas, N., Weitz, N., Carlsen, H., Skånberg, K., Dzebo, A., … Johnson, O. W. (2019). SDGs and the environment in the EU: A systems view to improve coherence. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 26(1), 27–46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10784-019-09441-y

Shongwe, P., Masuku, M. B., & Manyatsi, A. M. (2014). Factors Influencing the Choice of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies by Households: A Case of Mpolonjeni Area Development Programme (ADP) in Swaziland. Journal of Agricultural Studies, 2(1), 86. https://doi.org/10.5296/jas.v2i1.4890

Shumbusho. (2009). wetland management and sustainable in Rwanda, (March).

Teklewold, H., Mekonnen, A., & Kohlin, G. (2019). Climate change adaptation: a study of multiple climate-smart practices in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Climate and Development, 11(2), 180–192. https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2018.1442801

Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: an introductory analysis - 2nd ed. New York: Harper and Row. Retrieved from https://www.worldcat.org/title/statistics-an-introductory-analysis-2nd-ed/oclc/299725866#.XfEk4h7Uh4k.mendeley

14 April, 2020
How to Cite
Nyirandorimana, E., Ndunda, E., & Muriuki, J. (2020). Factor Influencing Adaptation Choices Employed by Farmers Against Climate Change to Improve Rice Yield in Bugarama Wetland in Rwanda. East African Journal of Agriculture and Biotechnology, 2(1), 12-22. https://doi.org/10.37284/eajab.2.1.137