Exploring the Dynamic Role of Gamma-Delta T Cells in Clinical Pathology: A Systematic Review of Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives
Gamma-delta [γδ] T cells are a significant subset of T cells with ability to recognize many antigens without the guidance of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. A lot of studies have been conducted on them ever since they were discovered 36 years ago. Advances have been made about their structure and function. Thus, there is a need for an up-to-date review about their significance as well as their roles in Multiple Sclerosis. The study aimed to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning gamma delta T cells in pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A systematic review methodology was used to scope information from recent studies about gamma delta T cells. The review was carried out in PubMed database and it followed the PRISMA guidelines. The computerized review yielded 60 peer-reviewed articles published between 2011 and 2020. The results showed that gamma delta cells play a critical role in protection against infections and the fight against malignant cells. Most of the reviewed studies highlighted recent advances in research. It was noted that the subset of T cells plays a role in pathogenesis of MS. Several studies have highlighted the protective and detrimental effects of γδ T cells. On the one hand, the cells contribute to the pathogenesis of MS, while, on the other hand, they also help in immunoregulation. However, there is a dearth of literature on their specific role and their mechanism of action. Therefore, further studies are needed about γδ T cells in both human and animal model studies. Based on the findings of the reviewed studies, there is great promise in the use of γδ T cells for MS immunotherapy
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