Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Food Products in Kenya and their Chromatographic Detection: A Systematic Review

  • Micah Nyabiba Asamba Tharaka University
  • Miriam Wepukhulu Tharaka University
Keywords: Organophosphates, Systematic Review, HPLC, GC-MS, Acceptable Daily Intake, Bioaccumulation
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Organophosphate pesticides are used worldwide to control several pests and meet food demand. These chemicals harm non-target animals and people when misused. Thus, they are a health and environmental concern. The purpose of the systematic review was to synthesise the amount, breadth, and quality of evidence from empirical studies concerning the presence, type, and quantity of OPs in food products in Kenya. A systematic review was done by following the PRISMA protocol. For the identification of studies, the following databases were used: Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. The study focused on peer-reviewed articles published between January 2001 and August 2022. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria for the scoping review. The main methods used in detecting and quantifying organophosphates in the studies were High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Most studies (86.67%) reported significant levels of OPs in food products, exceeding the MRLs and the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADIs) set by the World Health Organization. Six of the studies (50%) reported the presence of OPs in plant products (vegetables, cereals, and fruits), while three (25%) found residues in animal products (milk and meat). The most notable OP compounds detected were chlorpyrifos, acephate, profenofos, diazinon, omethoate, and dimethoate. Most of the food samples in the reviewed studies presented contamination, making them a significant risk to human health due to bioaccumulation. Studies done in Kenya for the last 20 years continue to report high levels of organophosphate residues and their metabolites in food products, both from plant and animal origin. Although the residues are below MLRs in some samples, they can accumulate at higher levels in humans, becoming a severe health risk


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24 May, 2023
How to Cite
Asamba, M., & Wepukhulu, M. (2023). Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Food Products in Kenya and their Chromatographic Detection: A Systematic Review. East African Journal of Agriculture and Biotechnology, 6(1), 138-154.