Effect of Instructional Supervision on Education Quality in Secondary Schools in Kaham District, Tanzania

  • Pudensiana Tarimo St. Augustine University of Tanzania
  • Chrispina Lekule Ruaha Catholic University
Keywords: Instructional Supervision, Quality Education, Professional Development, Teaching and Learning, Instructional Leaders
Share Article:


The pursuit of quality learning experiences is vital to fostering individual growth, societal progress, and global competitiveness. This paper assessed the role of instructional supervision  in the delivery of quality education. This study was conducted in 5 selected secondary schools in Kahama, Tanzania. A mixed research approach and a convergent parallel design were used. One hundred and fifty seven (157) respondents composed of 142 teachers, 5 heads of schools, 5 school board members, 4 ward educational officers and 1 district educational officer were involved. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and document analysis. Quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS, version 21) while qualitative data were analysed thematically. The findings indicate that when instructional supervision is conducted appropriately it significantly contributes to teacher professional growth which in turn contributes to optimizing the quality of education. Additionally, the study found maximum cooperation between supervisors and supervisees to be paramount in instructional supervision. The findings also indicated that for instructional supervision to be effective, school leaders are to promote a culture of academic excellence, by ensuring conducive teaching and learning environment. Moreover, classroom visits should be regarded as supporting and encouraging teachers rather than a faulty finding strategy. Hence, this study is a wakeup call to all those involved in instructional supervision to strive towards promoting a positive mindset towards instructional supervision and to give it the priority it deserves to ensure the achievement of quality education


Download data is not yet available.


Abubakr, M.A. (2015). The role of educational supervisors towards improving teachers’ performance. (Master’ thesis, Bauchi state University). Retrieved from Gadau-Nigeria. https://www.researchgate.net/

Allida, V., Olela M., Ogwari,P.& Minia,O.(2018). Best Practices in Instructional Supervision: Astudy of Adventist Secondary School in Ranen Confernce. Retrieved from: https://www.ueab.ac.ke

Amough, K.C and Odeh, C.I. (2018) Effective Supervision and Quality Education in Secondary Schools in Nigeria. Multidisciplinary Journal of Academic Excellence,18(1) 2141-3215

Anike, M.S., Eyiene, A., and Egbai, E. M. (2015). Instructional supervisory practices and teachers’ role effectiveness in public secondary schools in Calabar South Local government area of cross river state. Journal of Educational and Practice, 6 (23), 43-47.

Assefa, E.B. (2014). The practices and impact of instructional supervision in Assosa zone

primary schools. (Master thesis, Jimma University). Retrieved from:

https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/20.500.12413/5471 in Ethiopia.

Beeh, F., Ola, S. S. S., & Basri, K. (2020). Optimization of Education Quality Improvement in Tarus Christian High School. Academic Journal of Educational Sciences, 4(2), 34-38.

Benigno, S. (2016) A viable solution to implement effective instructional supervision. Journal of Education and Learning, 5(1), 128-132.

Bishangirwa, L. R. (2017) Teachers and student’s participation in curriculum Management in Secondary schools in Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Masters Thesis. The Open University of Tanzania

Dambo, I.B. (2016). Supervisory strategies and effective instructional delivery in some secondary schools. International Journal of Innovative Development and Policy Studies 4(1) 22-33

Dangara, Y.U. (2015). The impact of instructional supervision on academic performance of secondary school students in Nasarawa state in Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(10), 160-167.

Donkoh, E.K. (2018). International Supervisory Practices of School Heads and teacher motivation in Public Schools. Journal of Education and E-learning Research, 5(1), 43-50. Education and Learning, 5(1), 128-132.

Eya, P. E. & Leonard, C. C. (2012). Effective Supervision of Instruction in Nigerian Secondary

Eze, N.G.S. (2009). Features of quality education faculty of education. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317570906_FEATURES_OF_QUALITY_EDUCATION

Glanz, S.S. (2007). The Impact of Instructional Supervision on Student Achievement:Can we make the connection? Retrieved from:http://eric.ed.gov

Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P., & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2007). Supervision and instructional Leadership (7th ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Glickman, C. D.; Gordon, S. P. & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2012). Supervision and instructional leadership: A development approach. NewYork: Allyn&Bacon

Gordon, S. P. (2005). Standards for Supervision of professional development. In S.PGO1.don (Ed) Standards for Instructional Supervision: Enhencing teaching and learning. Larchmont, New York: Eyes on Education, inc

Grauwe, A. (2001). School Supervision in Four African Countries. Volume I: Challenges and Reforms. Trends in School Supervision. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, International Inst. for Educational Planning, 7-9 rue Eugene-Delacroix, 75116 Paris, France. Web site: http://www. unesco. org/iiep.

Harsma, E. (2021). Contructivism-Maverick Learning and Educational Applied Research. Retrieved from: https://mlpp.pressbooks.pub

Kambuga, Y., Dadi, H. (2015). School inspection in Tanzania as a motor for education quality: challenges and possible way forward. Journal of Review of Knowledge Economy,2(1), 1-13.

Khatoon, M, Z, (2022). A study on quality and value based education a pathway to global paradise. Journal of IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396, 8(6),87-90

Kieleko, M.D. (2015). Factors influencing principals’ instructional supervision practices in public secondary schools, (Master thesis, University of Nairobi). Retrived from http://www.finessejournals.com/index.php/IJETP/article/download/5/4/

Kotride, Y.I. (2014). The Supervisors’ role for improving the quality of teaching and learning in Nigeria secondary schools’ educational system. International Journal of Education and research, 2(8), 53-60.

Lekule, C. (2022). Emancipatory education: Pre-requisite for social economic transformation in Tanzania. Journal of Research Innovation and Implications in Education, 6(1), 8-21.

Malik, S. (2021). Learning Theory of Cognitivism and it’s Implications on Student’s learning. World Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development 7(5) 67-71

Mafuwane, M.B (2011) The contribution of Instructional Leadership to learner performance. (Doctorial thesis, University of Pretoria). Retrieved from: https://repository.up.ac.za

Mirunde, A. (2015). Training and professional development needs for effective secondary schools’ management, (Master thesis, Open University of Tanzania). Retrieved from http://repository.out.ac.tz/1270/

Mudawali, M (2017). Relationship between instructional supervision and professional development: Perceptions of secondary school Teachers and Madrasah Tsanawiyah Islamic secondary School Teachers, (Master thesis). University of Tampere Indonesia.

Mukoro, S.A., and Pupu, O. (2013). Instructional supervision as a catalyst for quality improvement in secondary educational settings. Journal of Educational and Social Research Publishing Rome- Italy. 3(6), 59-67.

Mwakajitu, M. & Lekule, C. (2022). Contribution of Instructional Supervision on Teachers’ Professional Development: A Focus on Public Secondary Schools in Rombo District, Kilimanjaro-Tanzania. Journal of Research Innovation and Implications in Education, 6(4), 62 – 74.

Mwaniki, S., Njuguna, F., and Itegi, F. (2018). Bridging the gap of quality education provision in secondary Schools: A Reflection existing instructional supervision practices. International Journal of Advanced Research, 6(2), 324-341.

Mwesiga, A. (2018). Effectiveness of heads of schools in supervising teacher’s teaching activities in secondary schools in Tanzania. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 6(4), 91-107.

Namunga, W.K. (2017). Effects of supervision of instructional practices on teaching and learning in secondary schools in Kenya. International Journal of Scientific and

Nwambam, S.A., and Eze, I.P. (2017). Place of instructional supervision in enhancing public primary school teacher’s effectiveness. Academic Journal, 12(7), 467-472.

Odumbe, A.E. (2016). Influence of head teacher’s instructional supervision practices on pupils performance at Kenya primary Education, Mwatate sub-county, Taita Taveta county (Master thesis, University of Nairobi). Retrieved from http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/97233/Odumbe

Okendu, J.N. (2012). The influence of instructional process and supervision on academic performance of secondary school students. Academic Research international journal, 3(1), 147-151.

Popovic,A, (2019), Challenging the European area of lifelong learning. Indian Higher Education-envisioning The Future

Prameswari, J.S., and Budiyanto. (2017). The development of the effective learning environment by creating an effective teaching in the classroom. Indonesia Journal of informatics education, 1(1), 79-86.

Ryan, J. (2014). Promoting inclusive leadership in diverse schools. International handbook of

educational leadership and social (in) justice, 359-380. Springer, Dordrecht,

Samkange, W. (2016). The role of supervision in improving the quality of education in schools. Scholars Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(5A), 504-509.

Schools: Issues in Quality Assurance. Journal of Qualitative Education, 8(1)0331-4790.

Sharma, S., and Al-sinawai, S. (2019). Attitudinal supervision: A study of teacher beliefs and supervisory behavior in Malaysia. International journal of education studies, 12(8), 106-115.

Sharma, S., and Kannan, S. (2012). Instructional supervision a tool for improvement or weapon for punishment. Research Journal of Social Sciences & Management, 2, 829-835.

Susanti, S., Wardiah, D., & Lian, B. (2020). Effect of Academic Supervision of School Heads and School Culture on Quality Teaching Teachers. International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies, 20(1), 67-77.

Tesema, A. (2014). The practices and challenges of schools-based in government secondary

Schools. (Master thesis, Jimma University). Retrieved from https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/20.500.12413/5338/ABEBE%20FINAL%20RESEARCH.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y

Tesfaw, A. I., and Hofman, H. R. (2014). Relationship between instructional supervision and professional development. The International Educational Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 13(1), 82-99.

15 February, 2024
How to Cite
Tarimo, P., & Lekule, C. (2024). Effect of Instructional Supervision on Education Quality in Secondary Schools in Kaham District, Tanzania. East African Journal of Education Studies, 7(1), 216-230. https://doi.org/10.37284/eajes.7.1.1759