A Hardy Cross Approach for Hydraulic Modelling of Water Pipe Networks

  • Denis Obura Pan African University
  • David Kimera Busitema University
  • Abdelkrim Khaldi University of Sciences and Technology Mohamed Boudiaf
Keywords: Complex Pipe Network, Hardy Cross, Hydraulic, Numerical Modelling
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Whenever there are substantial variations in the quantity of demands within a metropolitan water network, it is necessary to assess the pipe network to aid the water utilities in decision making. Variability in demand exists every time new industries or residences are connected to the network. In cases where no analyses are done prior to making new connections, unnecessarily huge funds are incurred and use of unreasonably bigger pipes is inevitable, some of which may stay redundant. The present study aims at developing a user-friendly numerical hydraulics model for analysing compound pipe networks. The model was developed using the V-Model approach, written in visual basic language to resolve the elementary pipe system equations using the improved Hardy Cross method. This program examines steady-state flows, head losses, flow velocities, and pressures for single, two, three, and four loop water distribution networks. The four-loop example represents the entire network of the case study area in consideration. The comparative study conducted on results from the program and EPANET indicated consistency in the results as coefficient of determinant, R^2, for all the computed variables was approximately unity (1). The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE) were found to be reasonably so small. Therefore, it can be concluded from the statistical analysis that the model is reliable for the analysis of a water network consisting of 1, 2, 3, and 4 closed loops.


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3 February, 2022
How to Cite
Obura, D., Kimera, D., & Khaldi, A. (2022). A Hardy Cross Approach for Hydraulic Modelling of Water Pipe Networks. East African Journal of Engineering, 5(1), 28-56. https://doi.org/10.37284/eaje.5.1.542