Early River Flood-Warning System Based on Embedded Systems
This paper details the design and construction of a Flood Warning System (FWS) for River Nyamwamba that has been prone to floods of a greater magnitude. The idea was developed on the principle that floods are a meteorological event that develops over time, and thus a need for sufficient time for people to evacuate, and to protect their lives and property. However, the range of existing FWSs have a tangle of conflicting requirements in terms of cost and reliability and have challenges from factors as diverse as technological and social. Built on Computer Embedded Systems, this study provides a cheaper and reliable FWS for a country like Uganda. River Nyamwamba flow was modelled with DEM, Topography sheets, river map, imageries, flow data, stage data, land use maps, and rainfall data. The data sets were conditioned and processed in a GIS environment using ArcGIS software and exported to the HECRAS program to perform a steady flow simulation of the river. High-risk areas were visualized that provided reliable river flow parameters that were used as input values for the design of the FWS. An Arduino programmed microcontrollers were used to control all input and output values regarding the modelled river. An ultrasonic sensor was used to monitor the normal flow, intermediate flow, and peak flood water levels. From this, the river stage was displayed onto an LCD screen at all times, an electronic SMS is sent to operators at intermediate flow, while an alarm is sounded at flood level.
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