Senna siamea Seed Provenance of Zimbabwe: A Potential Oleic- and Linoleic-Acid-Rich Dietary Protein and Energy Source for Livestock and Poultry Feeds
In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), off-veld ruminant livestock and commercial poultry production fail to meet the demand for meat and eggs. Intensified production to meet the demand requires nutritionally balanced feeds. Competition between humans, livestock and poultry for feed resources present a challenge hence the need for alternative feed resources. Indigenous trees seeds are potential sources of nutrients. Senna siamea, widely distributed in SSA, produces an abundance of seed. We evaluated, by chemical analyses, the potential of hulled (HSSM) and dehulled (DSSM) in S. siamea seed meal to supply nutrients in feeds. DSSM had higher DM, CP, EE, ash, P and gross energy (92.71±0.08%, 47.89±0.03%, 11.39±0.16%, 6.17±0.07%, 1.01±0.03% and 23.13±0.05 MJ/kg DM, respectively) content than HSSM (P<0.05). Amino acids were more concentrated (P<0.05) in the DSSM. HSSM’s CF, NDF, ADF and Ca content was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to that of the DSSM. The DM, CP, EE and gross energy (GE) content (89.48±0.09%, 21.75±0.09%, 4.71±0.41%, and 20.46±0.04 MJ/kg DM, respectively) of the HSSM though lower compared to in DSSM, are within range of conventional plant-derived dietary protein and energy sources for feeds. DSSM’s CP and GE is higher than that of conventional dietary protein and energy sources for feeds. The TSFAs (27.88±1.36% vs 27.53±0.59%) and TPUFAs (50.42±5.18% vs 53.42±2.12%) proportion of the HSSM and DSSM, respectively were similar. HSSM (21.69±0.18%) had a significantly higher proportion of TMUFAs than DSSM (19.03±0.21%). DSSM had a higher concentration of the fatty acids per unit mass since it had more than double EE content of the HSSM. In HSSM and DSSM palmitic (19.18±0.44% vs 18.63±0.37%), oleic (21.15±0.09% vs 18.45±0.01%) and linoleic acid (43.35 vs 50.62%), respectively were the dominant saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. S. siamea seed meals can potentially be exploited as oleic- and linoleic acid-rich dietary energy and protein sources in livestock and poultry feeds.
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Copyright (c) 2020 Ellis Ayayee, PhD, Bayanda Mdoda, Eliton Chivandi, PhD
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