Socioeconomic Determinants of Adoption of Eco-Friendly Farming Practices in Agroecosystems of Embu County, Kenya
A close relationship exists between the environment and agriculture. A change in either of them invariably affects the other. That is why environmentalists, the government and the non-governmental organisations have supported the development and adoption of Eco-friendly Farming Practices (EFFPs) by farming households. Earlier studies had indicated that adoption of EFFPs was low in some areas while other regions of Kenya and Embu County had successfully adopted these practices. However, even where there was a successful adoption of EFFPs, the type and number of EFFPs varied greatly. These inconsistencies in the type of EFFPs and the adoption of EFFPs necessitated this study. Therefore, this study carried out in Embu County sought to find out the influence of socioeconomic factors on the adoption of the EFFPs. Ex post facto research design was used in the study. Through multi-stage random sampling, 402 household heads were selected and all the 32 extension officers in the area were interviewed. Household head questionnaires, interview schedule and observation schedule were used for data collection. These research instruments were piloted, validated and their reliability established before data collection. Data was cleaned and entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 for analysis. Frequencies, Chi-square and regression model were used for analysis. Average income from agriculture, gender, farming experience, level of education, size of the farm and age were statistically significant (p<0.05) in influencing the adoption of EFFPs among households of Embu County. The study concluded that the socioeconomic factors were significant in influencing the adoption of EFFPs among households of Embu County. This implies that the household socioeconomic characteristics must be considered in designing effective environmental programmes in the County.
Akama, J., Lant, C. & Burnet, D. (1995). Conflicting Attitudes towards Wildlife Conservation Programme in Kenya. Society and Natural Resources 8, 133-144.
Anley, Y., Bogale, A., & Haile-Gabriel, A. (2007). Adoption decision and use intensity of soil and water conservation measures by smallholder subsistence farmers in Dedo district, western Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development, 18(3), 289-302.
Asrat, P., Belay, K., & Hamito, D. (2004). Determinants of farmers' willingness to pay for soil conservation practices in the southeastern highlands of Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development, 15(4), 423-438.
Bodnár, F., Schrader, T., & Van Campen, W. (2006). How Project Approach Influences Adoption of Soil and Water Conservation by Farmers; Examples from Southern Mali. Land Degradation and Development, 17, 479-494.
Bonabana-Wabbi, J. (2002). Assessing Factors Affecting Adoption of Agricultural Technologies: The Case of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Kumi District. Unpublished Thesis, Uganda
Carlisle, L. (2016). Factors influencing farmer adoption of soil health practices in the United States: A narrative review. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 40(6), 583-613.
Chomba, T. M. (2016). Influence of Farmer’s Characteristics, Agricultural Extension and Technology Specific Factors on Adoption of Organic Farming Technologies in Embu West Sub County, Embu, Kenya. (Unpublished Masters Project Report). University of Nairobi, Kenya.
County Government of Embu. (2014). Embu County Integrated Development Plan, 2013-2018. County Government of Embu.
De Boer, W. & Baquete, D. (1998). Natural Resource Use, Crop Damage and Attitudes of Rural People in the Vicinity of the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique. Environmental Conservation, 5 (3): 208-218
Fiallo, E. & Jacobson, S. (1995). Local Communities and Protected Areas: Attitudes of Rural Residents towards Conservation and Machililla National Park, Ecuador. Environmental Conservation, 26 (3): 241-249.
Gabre-Madhin, Z. & Haggblade, S. (2001). Success in African Agriculture: Results of an Expert Survey. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Giller, K. E, Witter, E., Corbeels, M. & Tittonel, P. (2009). Conservation Agriculture and Smallholder Farming in Africa: The Heretics view. Field Crops Research, 114(1), 23-34.
Hurni, H. (2000). Soil Conservation Policies and Sustainable Land Management: A global overview. In: Napier, T. Napier, S.M., Tvrdon, J. (eds), Soil and Water Conservation Policies and Programmes: Successes and Failures. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (2009). Executive Summary of the Synthesis Report. Washington, DC: International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development.
Infield, M. (1998). Attitudes of Rural Communities towards Conservation and a Local Conservation area in Natal, South Africa. Biological Conservation, 45: 211-46.
Jaetzold, R., Schmidt, H., Hornet, Z. B., & Shisanya, C. A. (2007). Farm Management Handbook of Kenya. Natural Conditions and Farm Information. 2nd Edition. Eastern Province. Ministry of Agriculture/GTZ, Nairobi, Kenya.
Kasenge, V. (1998). Socio-economic Factors Influencing the Level of Soil Management Practices on Fragile Land. In Proceedings of the 16th Conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (Eds; Shayo Ngowi, A. J., Ley, G. and Rwehumbiza, F. B. R.), 13th-19th, December 1998, Tanga, Tanzania.
Kidane, G. (2001). Factors Influencing the Adoption of New Wheat and Maize Varieties in Tigray, Ethiopia: The case of Hawzien Woreda. (Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis). Haramaya University.
Mahdi, E. (2005). Farmers’ Evaluation, Adoption and Sustainable Use of Improved Sorghum Varieties in Jijiga Woreda, Ethiopia. (Unpublished M.Sc Thesis). Haramaya University, Ethiopia
Melaku, G. (2005). Adoption and profitability of Kenyan top bar hive beekeeping technology. Study in Ambasal district of Ethiopia. (Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis). Haramaya University. Ethiopia
Melesse, B. (2018). A review on factors affecting adoption of agricultural new technologies in Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Research, 9(3), 1-4.
Mengstie, F. A, (2009). Assessment of Adoption Behavior of Soil and Water Conservation Practices in the Koga Watershed, Highlands of Ethiopia: Thesis. Cornell University. Ethiopia.
Mignouna, B., Manyong, M., Rusike, J., Mutabazi, S., & Senkondo, M. (2011). Determinants of Adopting Imazapyr-Resistant Maize Technology and its Impact on Household Income in Western Kenya. AgBioforum, 14(3), 158-163.
Mishra, B., Gyawali, B. R., Paudel, K. P., Poudyal, N. C., Simon, M. F., Dasgupta, S., & Antonious, G. (2018). Adoption of sustainable agriculture practices among farmers in Kentucky, USA. Environmental Management, 62(6), 1060-1072.
Mutuku, M. M., Nguluu, S.N., Akuja, T., Lutta, M. & Benard, P (2017). Factors that Influence the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility and Water Management Practices by Smallholder Farmers in the Semi-Arid Areas of Eastern Kenya. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 20 (2017): 141 – 153.
Ngetich, F. K., Shisanya, C. A., Mugwe, J. N., Mucheru-Muna, M. & Mugendi, D. N. (2012). The potential of organic and inorganic nutrient sources in Sub-Saharan African crop farming systems, soil fertility improvement and integrated nutrient management: A global perspective. In Whalen, J, K. (Eds), Soil Fertility Improvement and Integrated Nutrient Management: A Global (p. 135-182). Rijeka, Croatia: InTech.
Njeru, M. K. (2015). Challenges and benefits of organic farming among farmers in Nembure Division, Embu County-Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and Social sciences, 5, 12.
Olwande, J., Sikei, G., & Mathenge, M. (2009). Agricultural Technology Adoption: A Panel Analysis of Smallholder Farmers’ Fertilizer use in Kenya. CEGA. Working Paper Series No. AfD-0908. Centre of Evaluation for Global Action. University of California, Berkeley.
Rahmeto, N. (2007). Determinants of Adoption of Improved Haricot Bean Production Package in Alaba Special Woreda, Southern Ethiopia. (Unpublished M.Sc Thesis) Haramaya University, Ethiopia
Rasul, G. & Thapa, G. B. (2004). Sustainability of Ecological and Conventional Agricultural Systems in Bangladesh: An Assessment based on environment, economic and social perspectives. Agricultural Systems, 79, 327-351
Republic of Kenya. (2007). Environment, Water, and Irrigation Sector Report. Republic of Kenya.
Roling, N. (2005). Gateway to the Global Garden: Beta/Gamma Science for Dealing with Ecological Rationality. In: Pretty, J. (eds), The Earth Scan Reader in Sustainable agriculture. Earth Scan, London.
Samiee, A., Rezvanfar, A., Faham, E. (2009). Factors Affecting Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Wheat Growers in Varamin County, Iran. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(5), 491-497.
Shields, M. L., Ganesh P. R., & Goode, F. M. (1993). A Longitudinal Analysis of Factors Influencing Increased Technology Adoption in Swaziland, 1985-1991. The Journal of Developing Areas, 27 (July), 469-484.
Smith, P., Martino, D., Cai, Z., Gwary, D., Janzen, H., Kumar, P., McCarl, B., Ogle, S., O’Mara, F., Rice, C., Scholes, B., Sirotenko, O., Howden, M., McAllister, T., Pan, G., Romanennkov, V., Schneider, U. & Towprayoon, S. (2007). Policy and Technological Constraints to Implementation of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in Agriculture. Agricultural Economics & Environment, 118: 6-28
Suri, T. (2011). Selection and Comparative Advantage in Technology Adoption. Econometrica 79(1): 159–209.
Tenge, A.J, De Graaff, J. & Hella, J. P. (2004). Social and economic factors affecting the adoption of soil and water conservation in West Usambara Highlands, Tanzania. Land Degrad Dev 15: 99-114
Tesfaye, B. (2003). Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water conservation in Konso, Wolaita and Wello, Ethiopia. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University and Research Centre. Ethiopia
Theodor, F., Josef, K. & Amir K. (2014). Conservation Agriculture in Developing Countries: The Role of Mechanization 1. Food and Agricultural Organizations of the United Nations.
Tigist, P. (2010). Adoption of Conservation Tillage Technologies in Metema Woreda, North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia. (Unpublished M.Sc Thesis). Haramaya University, Ethiopia.
Uaiene, R., Arndt, C., Masters, W. (2009). Determinants of Agricultural Technology Adoption in Mozambique. Discussion papers No. 67
United Nations Environmental Programme. (2008). Agriculture: The need for change-press releases in April 2008. In UNEP-United Nations Environmental Programme Washington/London/Nairobi/Delhi, 2008 Available from http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=531& Article ID=5769&l=en
Yadate, D. M. (2007). Evaluating Agricultural Sustainability and Adoption/ Diffusion of Conservation Tillage in Sub-Sahara Africa/ (Ethiopia in some selected potential areas). Retrieved from http://www.sustainability.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/members/documents/13-Yadete.pdf
Yishak, G. (2005). Determinants of Adoption of Improved Maize Technology in Damot Woreda, wolaita Zone, Ethiopia. (Unpublished M.Sc Thesis). Alemaya University of Agriculture, Ethiopia
Copyright (c) 2020 Moses Kathuri Njeru
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.