The Prevalence of Physical Violence, Drivers of Imprisonment, and Conduct of Prisoners in Mogadishu Central Prison, Somalia
Violence is described as the intentional use of physical force against a person, oneself, or a group of people that causes trauma, psychological harm, or even death. It could take the shape of physical or psychological harm, deprivation, or emotional or sexual assault. Violence of many different kinds is committed in jails globally. However, they are frequently carried out in secrecy, which makes them challenging to establish. The target population for the study were prisoners and staff in Mogadishu Central Prison. A descriptive cross-sectional research design was applied to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Systematic sampling was used to select prisoners, while purposive sampling was used to select key informants (staff). The study used questionnaires and key informant interviews as data collection tools. Quantitative analysis was conducted using SPSS version 27, and both Fisher’s exact test and Pearson’s Chi-square were used to test for associations and relationships between variables after descriptive analysis had been done. Qualitative analysis was conducted using thematic analysis. The study found that the overall prevalence of physical violence in the prison was 16.3%, with the majority of violence being conducted by convicts against other inmates, but there were also instances of violence committed against and committed by prison staff. The prevalence among inmates was 15%, and prisoners against warden was 1.3%. The most common types of physical violence were fist fights (11.8%), flogging (1.6%), use of weapons or other instruments (1.6%) such as razor blades, throwing shoes at each other, or use of finger rings and slapping (1.3%). The study highlights a concerning high prevalence of physical violence within Mogadishu Central Prison, primarily perpetrated by inmates against each other and occasionally involving prison staff. To address the issue, the study recommends a multifaceted approach, including heightened conflict recognition and resolution training for prison staff, increased investment in resources to alleviate overcrowding, and the establishment of rehabilitation and mental health programs to target the underlying triggers of violence
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