Crime Mitigation Strategies Utilised in Slum Areas of Nairobi, Kenya

  • John Ndikaru wa Teresia, PhD Technical University of Kenya
Keywords: Victim Crime Mitigation, Crime Prevention, Community Policing, Informal Settlements, Offender, Police, Night Guards
Share Article:


The increase in urban population, occasioned by the rural-urban migration of young people has resulted in the expansion of informal settlements to accommodate the large numbers of low-income earners and the unemployed. This trend is replicated all across developing economies and in Kenya, it has resulted in the establishment of informal settlements such as Kangemi, Kawangware, Mathare, Mukuru, Korogocho, and Kibera, which is the largest in the whole continent. One of the negative implications of the growth of the informal settlement is the increase in criminal trends as most residents, particularly the youth resort to criminality as a way of making a living. In response, various strategies have been adopted to mitigate or rather prevent criminal activities in these informal settlements. This study focused on such strategies as used in four slums, which include Kibera, Mukuru, Mathare, and Korogocho. The study adopted the descriptive research design, which involved the collection and analysis of quantitative data using questionnaires. The data was collected from a sample of 659 residents of the four informal settlements who were randomly sampled. The data was input in the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) and then analysed using the descriptive method whereby the data was presented on tables based on percentages. The study concluded that crime was a big problem for informal settlement residents. However, one of the most prevalent crimes included illicit brew, general robbery, muggings, and burglary. The residents claimed that the government was less concerned about resolving crime. The residents, however, acknowledged the significant role that they can play in solving crime in the slums and that community participation was critical in bringing on board all stakeholders. They have, therefore, organised themselves as communities to tackle crime and insecurity in their neighbourhood. Some of the crime prevention programs adopted include community policing, police patrols, vigilante groups, erecting gates and fences, village security committees, and the employment of night guards. The study recommended increased collaboration between state and non-state actors to combat crime in informal settlements and the enhancement of the existing community policing initiatives.


Download data is not yet available.


Adhiambo, A. O. (2017). Effects of Community Policing in Addressing Sexual and Gender-based in Kenya: Case Study of Kibera Slum in Nairobi (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Adino, D. O. (2010). Exploring Factors That Predispose Mathare Slum Dwellers To Violence (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Chui, E. W., & Lo, T. W. (2013). Understanding Criminal Justice in Hong Kong. Routledge.

Coomber, R., Donnermeyer, J. F., McElrath, K., & Scott, J. G. (2015). Key Concepts in Crime and Society. Los Angeles, California: SAGE.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research Designs: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. SAGE Publications.

Filippi, F. D., Cocina, G. G., & Martinuzzi, C. (2020). Integrating Different Data Sources to Address Urban Security in Informal Areas. The Case Study of Kibera, Nairobi. Sustainability, 12(2437).

Fisher, B., & Lab, S. P. (2010). Encyclopedia of Victimology and Crime Prevention. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

Kågesten, A. E., Oware, P. M., Ntinyari, W., Langat, N., Mboya, B., & Ekströma, A. M. (2021). Young People’s Experiences With an Empowerment-Based Behavior Change Intervention to Prevent Sexual Violence in Nairobi Informal Settlements: A Qualitative Study. Global Health: Science and Practice, 9(3), 508 - 522.

Kiprono, W. (2007). Challenges Facing the Implementation of Community Policing in Kenya: A Case Study of Kibera, Nairobi (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Kipyatich, N. K. (2021). Crime Forecasting And Mitigation In Selected Slum Areas In Mombasa City County, Kenya. Kenyatta University.

Metobo, E., Mwaeke, P., & Bor, E. (2021). Effects of Slum Upgrading on Security Managment In Soweto Slums, Roysambu Sub-County In Nairobi, Kenya. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 8(1), 479-503.

Mgele, V. O. (2014). Evaluation Of Slum Upgrading And Redevelopment In Promoting Sustainable Urban Human Settlements: A Case Study Of Pumwani-Majengo Housing Project, Nairobi County. Kenyatta University.;sequence=1

Mitra, S., Mulligan, J., Schilling, J., Harper, J., & Krause, J. V. (2017). Developing risk or resilience? Effects of slum upgrading on the social contract and social cohesion in Kibera, Nairobi. Environment & Urbanisation, 1-19.

Mugenda, O., & Mugenda, A. (2003). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches Africa Center for Technology Studies.

Murefu, M. N., Wamũyũ, T. W., & Ochieng, D. O. (2019). Community Policing And Crime Reduction In Informal Settlements: A Case Of Korogocho Slum, Nairobi City County, Kenya. Strategic Journal of Business and Change Management, 6(3), 575 - 584.

Mutahi, P. (2011). Between Illegality and Legality: (In)security, crime and gangs in Nairobi informal settlements. SA Crime Quarterly, 37, 11-18.

Mutai, C., Ombachi, N., & Simiyu, R. (2020). Public Health in Urban Spaces; Vulnerability of Youth to Drug Abuse in Nairobi’s Mukuru Kwa Njenga Informal Settlements, Kenya. African Journal of Alcohol & Drug Abuse, 4, 27 - 38.

Mutua, C. K. (2017). Effectiveness Of Mukuru Slum Development Project (Msdp) Halfway House Rehabilitation Program On The Rehabilitation Of Street Children In Nairobi City County, Kenya . Catholic University Of Eastern Africa.

Mwangangi, M. K., Theuri, M. M., & Nyachoti. (2020). Assessment Of The Role Of Nyumba Kumi Initiative On Crime Reduction Within Kiambio Slums, Nairobi County, Kenya.

NationalCrimeResearchCenter. (2017). National Crime Mapping Study: Public Perceptions Of Crime Patterns And Trends In Kenya.

Obare, M. J. (2015). An Evaluation Of Slum Upgrading Schemes In Nairobi County: The Case Of Kibera Slums. Kenyatta University.

Ogutu, K. K., Okere, M. I., & Bor, E. (2017). Influence of Community Policing on Incidences of Criminal Activities in Low Income Areas of Nakuru Town. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education, 4(9), 52-57.

Skilling, L. (2018). Preventing Crime In Communities: A Critical Analysis Of Community Safety In A Lower Income Neighbourhood In Nairobi, Kenya . University of South Wales.

Solymári, D., Mangera, J., Czirják, R., & Tarrósy, I. (2021). Overview Of Kenyan Government Initiatives In Slum Upgrading: The Case Of Kensup And Kisip Projects. Hungarian Journal of African Studies, 15(3), 37-59.

Thuku, Z. K. (2021). Contribution Of Non-State Actors To Community Policing In Urban Informal Settlements: A Case Of Mlango Kubwa Ward, Nairobi City County, Kenya. Africa Nazarene University.

Wortley, R., & Mazerolle, L. (2013). Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis. Routledge.

Yiaile, S. S., Rono, A., & Ngao, D. G. (2017). Effects of Violent Crimes on Economic Welfare of Slum Dwellers: Kenyan Perspective. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(10).

18 January, 2023
How to Cite
wa Teresia, J. (2023). Crime Mitigation Strategies Utilised in Slum Areas of Nairobi, Kenya. East African Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 6(1), 1-23.