Stage at Presentation and Associated Factors for Late Diagnosis of Head and Neck Malignancies at Bugando Medical Centre Tanzania

  • Olivia M. Kimario Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences
  • Alex Donasiano Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences
  • Oscar Ottoman Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences
  • Fabian Massaga Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences
Keywords: Stage, Associated factors, Head and Neck
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Head and neck cancer is among the most common cancers with an increase in number worldwide. It has a management challenge due to late-stage presentation. Its epidemiology and characteristics are changing from anatomical to biological due to its viral etiological. This study was done to determine the presentation and factors of head and neck malignancies at Bugando Medical Centre Tanzania. This was an analytical cross-section prospective study involving all patients confirmed to have head and neck malignancy at Bugando Medical Centre from February to June 2019. A total number of 60 patients (M: F=1.4:1) were studied. The median age was 56 years. The associated factors were the symptoms ranging from 1 to 104 weeks at the first consultation, Late-stage observed among patients coming from the rural areas by 58.3% and those using local medicine at 70%. Low level of education, which was primary education, was leading 51.7%. Those who attended the dispensary for their first consultation had an advanced stage of disease at presentation. It showed that the dispensary was the preferred centre for the first consultation of the majority at 41%. The major of patients presented at an advanced stage which was 73% and the contributory factor of delayed presentation of head and neck cancer at Bugando Medical Centre was attributed by patients themselves, whereas health care had a small contribution. The main reasons observed were rural settlement, local medication, and low level of education. Training must be conducted at health care providers in dispensaries and health centres on how to suspect patients with HNC at an early stage and refer them directly to tertiary hospitals without passing through a series of referrals


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16 January, 2024
How to Cite
Kimario, O., Donasiano, A., Ottoman, O., & Massaga, F. (2024). Stage at Presentation and Associated Factors for Late Diagnosis of Head and Neck Malignancies at Bugando Medical Centre Tanzania. East African Journal of Health and Science, 7(1), 1-9.