Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases in Children in Kericho West Sub-County, Kenya
Acute diarrheal disease among children aged less than five years remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe infectious diarrhoea in children occurs most frequently under circumstances of poor environmental sanitation and hygiene, inadequate water supplies and poverty. In Kenya, the control of diarrhoea disease including the promotion of breastfeeding, oral rehydration therapy and specific health education is a part of national strategies aimed to improve the quality of life and reduce the burdens caused by diseases. In Kericho West Sub-County, diseases associated with contaminated water, sanitation and poor hygiene tend to affect more in rural households. Nearly half of the children under five years suffer from related diarrhoeal diseases, thereby causing major concern to the entire local population. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the factors that lead to diarrhoeal diseases, to investigate the hygienic condition and source of water supply in the area, to examine the practices of the breastfeeding mothers and to determine the measures the county government has put in place to improve the health situation of the children. The study was grounded on two theories proposed by self-efficacy theory by Bandura. The study was carried out using a structured questionnaire as a quantitative tool while the interview guide was the qualitative tool for data collection. The location of the study was in Kericho West sub-county. The study concluded that there was a relationship between childhood diarrhoea, water, sanitation and hygiene in the study area. The study also found that there was a substantial positive association between breastfeeding and diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. From the findings, 83% used water with soap, while 41.3% obtained food from street vendors. The study recommends that the government facilities and private facilities should start sensitizing the Kericho West sub-county residents on the importance of maintaining hygiene through the use of clean and treated water as well as washing their utensils with hot water and soap. The government health care workers at the government facilities should counsel all the mothers and educate them on all the waterborne diseases as this would be the best option to control the communicable diseases in the County.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social cognitive theory and social referencing. In S. Feinman (Ed.), Social referencing and social construction of reality. New York: Plenum
Brewer, K. R. W. (1999). Design‐based or prediction‐based inference? Stratified random vs stratified balanced sampling. International Statistical Review, 67(1), 35-47.
Clasen, T., Fabini, D., Boisson, S., Taneja, J., Song, J., Aichinger, E., ...& Nelson, K. L. (2012). Making sanitation count: developing and testing a device for assessing latrine use in low-income settings. Environmental science & technology, 46(6), 3295-3303.
Ejemot‐Nwadiaro, R. I., Ehiri, J. E., Arikpo, D., Meremikwu, M. M., & Critchley, J. A. (2015). Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (9).
Emch, M., Yunus, M., Escamilla, V., Feldacker, C., & Ali, M. (2010). Local population and regional environmental drivers of cholera in Bangladesh. Environmental Health, 9(1), 2.
Jirojwong, S., & MacLennan, R. (2003). Health beliefs, perceived self‐efficacy, and breast self‐examination among Thai migrants in Brisbane. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41(3), 241-249.
Krejcie, R. V. & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610.
Maddux, J. E., & Stanley, M. A. (1986). Self-efficacy theory in contemporary psychology: An overview. Journal of Social and Clinical psychology, 4(3), 249-255.
Moraes, L. R. S., Cancio, J. A., Cairncross, S., & Huttly, S. (2003). Impact of drainage and sewerage on diarrhoea in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 97(2), 153-158.
Mugenda, O. M., and Mugenda, A.G. (2003). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.
Ojewumi, T. K., & Ojewumi, J. S. (2012). Trends in Infant and Child Mortality in Nigeria: a wake-up call assessment for intervention towards achieving the 2015 MDGs. Science Journal of Sociology & Anthropology, 1(2), 1-10.
Orora, C. N. (2018). Household Environmental Hazards and Behavioral Practices Influencing Children Diarrhea Incidences in Homabay County, Kenya (Doctoral Dissertation, MMUST).
Schmidt, W. P., &Cairncross, S. (2009). Household water treatment in poor populations: is there enough evidence for scaling up now?. Environmental science & technology, 43(4), 986-992.
Steffen, R. (2017). Epidemiology of travellers’ diarrhoea. Journal of travel medicine, 24(suppl_1), S2-S5.
Wallston, K. A. (1992). Hocus-pocus, the focus isn't strictly on locus: Rotter's social learning theory modified for health. Cognitive therapy and research, 16(2), 183-199.
World Health Organization. (2009). Diarrhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done.
Copyright (c) 2020 Japhet Kipngeno, John Ayieko Aseta
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.