Impacts of Farming Activities on the Conservation of Sondu River Basin in Kericho County, Kenya

  • Japhet Kipngeno University of Kabianga
  • Paul A Omondi, PhD Moi University
  • Abdirizak A Nunow, PhD Moi University
Keywords: Wetlands, Conservation, Human Activities, Sustainable Utilization, Planning and Management


Governments and environmental conservationists agree that wetland resources need to be utilized sustainably to ensure the continued presence of wetlands and their ecological goods and services. Ideally, wetlands should be integrated into the national and local land use plans to ensure sustainable use and management of the resources. However, this is not the case as far as Kenya is concerned. Instead, there is rampant exploitation of wetlands by individuals, organizations and even government agencies with no regard for environmental conservation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the impact of human activities on wetland conservation with a focus on the Sondu River Basin. The objective of the study was to establish the farming activities on the Conservation of Sondu River Basin Kericho County, Kenya. The study was grounded on the integrated water resource management theory. This study adopted a concurrent triangulation research design, which entailed a combination of both qualitative and quantitative data. The target population for the study was 164 respondents in which a sample of 144 respondents was selected using Slovin's formula. The sample was randomly selected with the inclusion criterion being that the chosen respondents were homogeneously engaged in human activities that affected wetland conservation. Intensive data cleaning exercise was carried out including checking for outliers, missing data imputation and variable transformation. The collected data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and summation and presented in the form of tables and charts. The results of the study will inform policy and practice in the management and conservation of the Sondu River wetland area. The study established that human activities such as farming, logging, construction, drilling, building and construction and settlements have immensely hampered conservation of Sondu wetland. Further, it was noted that it is indeed possible to gain vital information about the human activities responsible for the degradation of wetlands.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahidur, R. (2016). Impact of Human Activities on Wetland: A Case Study from Bongaigaon District, Assam, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5(3), 392-396.

Al Radif, A. (1999). Integrated water resources management (IWRM): an approach to face the challenges of the next century and to avert future crises. Desalination, 124(1-3), 145-153.

Ausseil, A. G., Gerbeaux, P., Chadderton, W. L., Stephens, T., Brown, D., & Leathwick, J. (2008). Wetland ecosystems of national importance for biodiversity: criteria, methods and candidate list of nationally important inland wetlands. Landcare Research Contract Report LC0708/158.

Bernhardt, E. S., Likens, G. E., Buso, D. C., & Driscoll, C. T. (2003). In-stream uptake dampens effects of major forest disturbance on watershed nitrogen export. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(18), 10304-10308.

Binkley, D. (1984). Ion exchange resin bags: factors affecting estimates of nitrogen availability. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 48(5), 1181-1184.

Bloom, P. R. (1981). Phosphorus adsorption by an aluminum‐peat complex. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 45(2), 267-272.

Frenken, K., &Mharapara, I. (2002). Wetland development and management in SADC countries. In FAO/SADC Sub-Regional Consultation, Harare (Zimbabwe), 19-23 November 2001. FAO.

Jeffrey, P., &Gearey, M. (2006). Integrated water resources management: lost on the road from ambition to realisation? Water science and technology, 53(1), 1-8.

Macharia, J. M., Thenya, T., &Ndiritu, G. G. (2010). Management of highland wetlands in central Kenya: The importance of community education, awareness and eco-tourism in biodiversity conservation. Biodiversity, 11(1-2), 85-90.

MacKay, H., Finlayson, C. M., Fernandez-Prieto, D., Davidson, N., Pritchard, D., & Rebelo, L. M. (2009). The role of Earth Observation (EO) technologies in supporting implementation of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Journal of environmental management, 90(7), 2234-2242.

Masala, H. (2014). Livestock populations and the household economy: A case study from southern Zimbabwe. Doctoral Thesis. University of London

Matano, A. S., Kanangire, C. K., Anyona, D. N., Abuom, P. O., Gelder, F. B., Dida, G. O., ... &Ofulla, A. V. (2015). Effects of land-use change on land degradation reflected by soil properties along Mara River, Kenya and Tanzania. Open Journal of Soil Science, 5(01), 20.

Matsa, M., &Muringaniza, K. (2011). An assessment of the land use and land cover changes in Shurugwi district Zimbabwe. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 4(1).

Ramsar Convention Secretariat. (2010), Inventory, Assessment, and Monitoring: An Integrated Framework for Wetland Inventory, Assessment, and Monitoring. Ramsar handbooks for the wise use of wetlands, 4th edition, vol. 13.

Rebelo, L. M., McCartney, M. P., & Finlayson, C. M. (2010). Wetlands of Sub-Saharan Africa: distribution and contribution of agriculture to livelihoods. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 18(5), 557-572.

Roy, D., Barr, J., &Venema, H. D. (2011). Ecosystem approaches in integrated water resources management (IWRM): a review of transboundary basins. International Institute for Sustainable Development & International Institute for Sustainable Development.

Wawira, M. (2012). Headteachers’ characteristics influencing instructional supervision in public primary schools in Kasarani Division. Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Nairobi, Nairobi.

14 July, 2020
How to Cite
Kipngeno, J., Omondi, P., & Nunow, A. (2020). Impacts of Farming Activities on the Conservation of Sondu River Basin in Kericho County, Kenya. East African Journal of Environment and Natural Resources, 2(2), 35-43.