Impact of Agroforestry Adoption among Smallholder Farmers’ Households in Zambia: An Expenditure Approach

  • Petros Chavula Haramaya University
  • Hockings Mambwe World Agroforestry Centre
  • Abduletif Abdurahman Mume Goro Gutu District Agricultural Office
  • Yusuf Umer Haramaya University
  • Wellington Chazya World Agroforestry Centre
Keywords: Agroforestry Adoption, Climate Change, Crop Productivity, Household Expenditure, Smallholder Farmers
Share Article:


The environmental, economic, and social effects of climate change are expected to be profound for smallholder farmers, especially in developing countries like Zambia, whose way of life is largely dependent on the natural world. Many developing countries have realized that climate-smart agricultural practices such as agroforestry are a solution to existing problems caused by climate change. Agroforestry technologies incorporate tree crops in farming systems that benefit farmers with fodder for animals and fruits, reduce erosion, and reclaim soil fertility. This study investigated the impacts of agroforestry adoption on smallholder farmers’ crop productivity and household expenditure in Nyimba district, Zambia. The study further explored the factors influencing the adoption of agroforestry among smallholder farmers in the study area. Data was collected from July to August of 2022 from 325 randomly selected smallholder farmers’ households in four villages in the Nyimba district of Zambia. A binary logistic regression model was used in this study to determine factors influencing the adoption of agroforestry among smallholder farmers. The results revealed that smallholder farmers’ household head education level, access to extension services, household size, access to credit, farming experience, farmland size, and distance to the nearest market had an influence on agroforestry adoption. Propensity score matching was performed to determine the impacts of agroforestry adoption on smallholder farmers’ household expenditure and crop productivity. The results revealed that smallholder farmers’ household adopters had 1,929.040 kilograms of crop yield (Zea mays L.) higher than non-adopters by 817.43 kilograms. Household expenditure for smallholder farmers adopters was ZMW 8,873.47 higher than non-adopters by ZMW 5,617.91 in the study area. The findings imply that smallholder farmers’ households should implement agroforestry in the long term to improve their household welfare. Therefore, the study suggested that efforts should be focused concomitantly on the diffusion of agroforestry options and the lifting of their adoption barriers among smallholder farmers


Download data is not yet available.


Ajayi, O. C., Franzel, S., Kuntashula, E., & Kwesiga, F. (2003). Adoption of improved fallow technology for soil fertility management in Zambia: Empirical studies and emerging issues. Agroforestry Systems, 59(3), 317–326.

Ajayi, O. C., Masi, C, Masi, C., Katanga, R., & Kabwe, G. (2006). Typology and Characteristics of Farmers Testing Agroforestry. Zambian Journal of Agricultural Science, 8(2), 1–5.

Amadu, F. O., Miller, D. C., & McNamara, P. E. (2020). Agroforestry as a pathway to agricultural yield impacts in climate-smart agriculture investments: Evidence from southern Malawi. Ecological Economics, 167(October 2018), 106443.

Amendment, H. (2006). Tax and expenditure limitations and economic growth. 681.

Attanasio, O., Berloffa, G., Blundell, R., & Preston, I. (2002). From earnings inequality to consumption inequality. Economic Journal, 112(478), C52–C59.

Attanasio, O. P., & Pistaferri, L. (2016). Consumption inequality. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(2), 2–28.

Branca, G., Paolantonio, A., Cavatassi, R., Banda, D., Grewer, U., Kokweh-Larbi, K., & Lipper, L. (2019). Climate-Smart Agriculture Practices in Zambia: An Economic Analysis at Farm Level. SSRN Electronic Journal, October, 20–29.

Curley, J. (2005). CSD Working Paper. 05.

Cutler, D. M., & Katz, L. F. (2012). Rising Inequality? Changes in the Distribution of Income and Consumption in the 1980’ s. 82(2).

Dhakal, A., Cockfield, G., & Maraseni, T. N. (2015). Deriving an index of adoption rate and assessing factors affecting adoption of an agroforestry-based farming system in Dhanusha District, Nepal. Agroforestry Systems, 89(4), 645–661.

Elhaik, E. (2022). Principal component analyses (PCA)-based findings in population genetic studies are highly biased and must be reevaluated. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 14683.

FAO. (2018). Agroforestry Basic knowledge This module provides an overview of agroforestry systems ; it also describes how to identify the most appropriate agroforestry system and to design , adapt , establish and manage it . A section on the “ enabling environment .”

Franzel, S., Cooper, P., Denning, G. L., & Eade, D. (n.d.). and Agroforestry Development. 119119.

Garrett, H. E., Wolz, K. J., Walter, W. D. “Dusty,” Godsey, L. D., & McGraw, R. L. (2021). Alley cropping practices. North American Agroforestry, 163–204.

Gebru, B. M., Wang, S. W., Kim, S. J., & Lee, W. K. (2019). Socio-ecological niche and factors affecting agroforestry practice adoption in different agroecologies of southern Tigray, Ethiopia. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(13), 1–19.

Green, V. S., Cavigelli, M. A., Dao, T. H., & Flanagan, D. C. (2005). Soil physical properties and aggregate-associated C, N, and P distributions in organic and conventional cropping systems. Soil Science, 170(10), 822–831.

Jama, N., Kuntashula, E., & Samboko, P. C. (2019). Adoption and Impact of the Improved Fallow Technique on Cotton Productivity and Income in Zambia. Sustainable Agriculture Research, 8(2), 1.

Jara-Rojas, R., Russy, S., Roco, L., Fleming-Muñoz, D., & Engler, A. (2020). Factors affecting the adoption of agroforestry practices: Insights from silvopastoral systems of Colombia. Forests, 11(6), 1–15.

Johnson, D., Shipp, S., Statistics, L., & Dc, W. (1993). No Title. 1991, 1–7.

Katanga, R., Kabwe, G., Kuntashula, E., Mafongoya, P. L., & Phiri, S. (2007). Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 13(2), 117–129.

Kewessa, G. (2020). Homegarden Agroforestry as a Tool for Sustainable Production Unit in Ethiopia. Journal of Resources Development and Management, August.

Khor, N., & Pencavel, J. (2008). ADB Economics Working Paper Series. 145.

Mesike, C. S., & Okwu-Abolo, C. (2022). Factors determining adoption of smallholding rubber agroforestry Systems (RAFS) in Nigeria. Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica, 55(1), 49–56.

Miller, D. C., Ordoñez, P. J., Brown, S. E., Forrest, S., Nava, N. J., Hughes, K., & Baylis, K. (2020). The impacts of agroforestry on agricultural productivity, ecosystem services, and human well-being in low-and middle-income countries: An evidence and gap map. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 16(1).

Miller, D. C., Rana, P., Nakamura, K., Irwin, S., Cheng, S. H., Ahlroth, S., & Perge, E. (2021). A global review of the impact of forest property rights interventions on poverty. Global Environmental Change, 66, 102218.

Nkamleu, G. B., & Manyong, V. M. (2005). Factors affecting the adoption of agroforestry practices by farmers in Cameroon. Small-Scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy, 4(2), 135–148.

Nkhuwa, H., Kuntashula, E., Kalinda, T., & Chishala, B. (2020). Effects of soil organic resource management practices on crop productivity and household income in Chipata district of Zambia. 12(December), 98–109.

Pandey, C. B., Rai, R. B., Singh, L., & Singh, A. K. (2007). Homegardens of Andaman and Nicobar, India. Agricultural Systems, 92(1–3), 1–22.

Pello, K., Okinda, C., Liu, A., & Njagi, T. (1936). Forestry in Kenya. Nature, 138(3484), 253.

Ravallion, M., & Lokshin, M. (1999). Subjective Economic Welfare. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 2106, 1–39.

Santoro, A., Venturi, M., Bertani, R., & Agnoletti, M. (2020). A review of the role of forests and agroforestry systems in the fao globally important agricultural heritage systems (GIAHS) programme. Forests, 11(8), 1–21.

Sileshi, G. W., Mafongoya, P. L., Akinnifesi, F. K., Phiri, E., Chirwa, P., Beedy, T., Makumba, W., Nyamadzawo, G., Njoloma, J., Wuta, M., Nyamugafata, P., & Jiri, O. (2014). Agroforestry: Fertilizer Trees. Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, August, 222–234.

Tiwari, P., Pant, K. S., Guleria, A., & Yadav, R. P. (2018). Socioeconomic characteristics and livelihood of agroforestry practitioners in north-west Himalayas, India. Range Management and Agroforestry, 39(2), 289–295.

Van Praag, B. M. S., & Frijters, P. (1999). The measurement of welfare and well-being: The Leyden approach. Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, 1–44.

Walter, D., Jose, S., & Zamora, D. (2015). Chapter 3: Alley Cropping. Training Manual for Applied Agroforestry Practices, 31–49.

Williams, T. O., Mul, M., Olufunke, C., Kinyangi, J., Zougmore, R., Wamukoya, G., Nyasimi, M., Mapfumo, P., Speranza, C. I., Amwata, D., Frid-Nielsen, S., Partey, S., Evan, G., Todd, R., & Bruce, C. (2015). Unlocking Africa’s Agricultural Potentials for Transformation to Scale of Climate Smart Agriculture in the African Context. 21.

Zerihun, M. F. (2020). Institutional Analysis of Adoption of Agroforestry Practices in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, 36, 37–56.

26 October, 2023
How to Cite
Chavula, P., Mambwe, H., Mume, A., Umer, Y., & Chazya, W. (2023). Impact of Agroforestry Adoption among Smallholder Farmers’ Households in Zambia: An Expenditure Approach. East African Journal of Forestry and Agroforestry, 6(1), 309-328.