Tolerance, Heritability, and Heterosis for Aluminium Toxicity Tolerance for ALXMSV Maize Single Crosses

  • Eugene O. Olung’ati University of Eldoret
  • Samuel O. Gudu Rongo University
  • Mercy Mumbua Joseph University of Eldoret
  • Evans Ouma University of Eldoret
  • Julius Ochuodho University of Eldoret
  • Oliver Kiplagat University of Eldoret
  • Kurgat Kiplagat University of Eldoret
Keywords: Single cross Hybrid, Maize Streak Virus, Aluminium toxicity, Tolerance, Soil Acidity
Share Article:


Maize is an important cereal crop rated third to rice and wheat on the global scale of agricultural production. It is use spans a vast array of industrial as well as domestic uses, with its consumption as food and feed being the primary reason for its cultivation This globally produced and consumed commodity is however faced with an array of biotic and abiotic constraints with regard to its production, such as MSV, MLND, Smut, Lepidopteron pests, soil acidity, P deficiency, poor rains and drought. This study aimed at assessing tolerance, heterosis, and heritability of Al toxicity tolerance in the laboratory for MSV/AL single crosses in terms of Net root length. The research methodology followed the Magnavaca protocol for Al tolerance screening in nutrient solution. The genotypes in the study varied significantly in terms of response under Al toxicity, with 22.58% tolerant, 19.35% moderately tolerant, and 58.6% being susceptible. From the study, 22.6% of the single crosses were found to be tolerant to the stress under controlled condition and 12.9% were found to have positive heterosis for the trait. While all the female parents were tolerant except AO809, only one male (54B) was moderately tolerant, this could have led to the low heritability expressed by the single crosses for the trait. The identified single crosses should be further screened for tolerance and heterosis in the field. However, this study showed low heritability for Al tolerance (estimated at 16.9%) when crossing is done between susceptible and tolerant genotypes


Download data is not yet available.


Acquaah, G. (2012). Principles of plant genetics and breeding. 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons.

Abate, E., Hussien, S., Laing, M., & Mengistu, F. (2013). Aluminium toxicity tolerance in cereals: Mechanisms,genetic control and breeding methods. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(9), 711-722

Assunção, A. G., Herrero, E., Lin, Y. F., Huettel, B., Talukdar, S., Smaczniak, C., ... & Aarts, M. G. (2010). Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors bZIP19 and bZIP23 regulate the adaptation to zinc deficiency. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(22), 10296-10301.

Barasa J. N., Omami E.N., Okalebo J.R. & Othieno C.O. (2013). Effect of lime and phosphorus fertilizer applications on performance of french beans in Uasin Gishu district, Kenya. Global journal of biology, agriculture and health science,2(3), 35-41.

Bekele, A., & Rao, T. N. (2013). Heterosis study for grain yield, protein and oil improvement in selected genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Plant Sciences, 1(4), 57-63.

Blair, W.M., Hernán, D., López-Marín, H. D., & Rao, I.M. (2009). Identification of aluminum resistant Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes. Brazilian journal of plant physiology, 21(4), 291-300.

Dabija, A., Ciocan, M. E., Chetrariu, A., & Codină, G. G. (2021). Maize and sorghum as raw materials for brewing, a review. Applied Sciences, 11(7), 3139.

Garcia-Oliveira, A., Martins-Lopes, P., Tolrà, R., Poschenrieder, C., Guedes-Pinto, H. & Benito, C. (2016). Differential Physiological Responses Of Portuguese Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Genotypes Under Aluminium Stress. Diversity, 8(4), 26.

Gichuru, L. N. (2013). Breeding investigations on the utility of maize streak resistant germplasm for hybrid development in the tropics. Scotsville; South Africa: University of KwaZulu-Natal. PHD Thesis.

Gichuru, L., Njoroge, K., Ininda, J., & Lorroki, P. (2011). Combining ability of grain yield and agronomic traits in diverse maize lines with maize streak virus resistance for Eastern Africa region. Agriculture and Biology Journal Of North America, 2(3), 432-439.

Gudu, S., Ligeyo, D., Ouma, E.,Matonyei, T., Onkware, A.O., Othieno, C.O., Okalebo, J.R.,Too, E.J., Agalo, J.,Kisinyo, P.O.,Ochuodho, J.O.,& Were, B. (2011). Screening for tolerance to Al toxicity and P-efficiency in Kenyan maize germplasm. Eldoret: Moi University.

Gwirtz, J. A., & Garcia‐Casal, M. N. (2014). Processing maize flour and corn meal food products. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1312(1), 66-75.

Holzman, R., & Hulsey, C. D. (2017). Mechanical Transgressive Segregation and the Rapid Origin of Trophic Novelty. Nature Publishing Group, (December 2016), 1–15.

Kisinyo, P., Opala, P., Gudu, S., Othieno, C., Okalebo, J., Palapala, V., & Otingah, A. (2014). Recent advances towards understanding and managing Kenyan acid soils for improved crop production. African Journal Of Agricultural Research, 9(31), 2397-2408.

Kochian, V.L., Hoekenga, A. O., & Pi˜neros, A.M. (2004). How do crop plants tolerate acid soils? mechanisms of aluminum tolerance and phosphorous efficiency. Annual Reviews of Plant Biology,55(1), 459–93.

Larsen, P., Cancel, J., Rounds, M., & Ochoa, V. (2006). Arabidopsis ALS1 encodes a root tip and stele localized half type ABC transporter required for root growth in an aluminum toxic environment. Planta, 225(6), 1447-1458.

Larsen, P., Geisler, M., Jones, C., Williams, K., & Cancel, J. (2004). ALS3 encodes a phloem-localized ABC transporter-like protein that is required for aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal, 41(3), 353-363.

Ligeyo, O.D. (2007). Evaluation of Kenyan maize germplasm for tolerrance to Al toxicity and phosphoorus deficiency, Unpublished PhD Thesis. Moi University, Kenya.

Magnavaca, R., Gardener, C. O., & Clark, R. B. (1987). Comparisons of maize populations for aluminium tolerance in nutrient solution. In H. a. Gabelman, B.C. Genetic aspects of plant mineral nutrition. (pp. 255-265). Martinus Nijjoff: Dordretcht.

Matin, M. Q. I., Rasul, M. G., Islam, A. K. M. A., Mian, M. K., Ivy, N. A., & Ahmed, J. U. (2016). Combining Ability and Heterosis in Maize (Zea mays L.). American Journal of BioScience, 4(6), 84-90.

Matonyei, T. (2010. Acid soil tolerance studies on selected maize breeding lines from Kenya, M-PHIL, Thesis, Moi University, Eldoret Kenya, 2010.

Merrick, L., Beavis, W., Edwards, J., Luberstedt, T., Campbell, A., & Muenchrath, D. (2011,). Inbreeding and Heterosis. 10-26.

Mutale, P. (2013). Inheritance of tolerance to aluminium toxicity in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Lusaka, Zambia: The University of Zambia Great East Road Campus Lusaka.

Ouma, E., Ligeyo, D., Matonyei, T., Agalo, J., Were, B., Too, E., Onkware, A., Gudu, S., Kisinyo, P.& Nyangweso, P. (2013). Enhancing Maize Grain Yield in Acid Soils of Western Kenya Using Aluminium Tolerant Germplasm. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 3, 33-46.

Panda, S., Baluška, F., & Matsumoto, H. (2009). Aluminum stress signaling in plants. Plant Signaling & Behavior, 4(7), 592-597.

Ranum, P., Peña‐Rosas, J. P., & Garcia‐Casal, M. N. (2014). Global maize production, utilization, and consumption. Annals of the new York academy of sciences, 1312(1), 105-112.

Reif, J., Hallauer, A., & Melchinger, A. (2005). Heterosis and Heterotic Patterns in Maize. Maydica 50, 215-223.

Ryder, P.,McKeown, P.C., Fort, A., & Spillane, C. (2014). Chapter 2: Epigenetics and Heterosis in Crop Plants. In D. l. Alvarres-venegas R., Epigenetics in Plants of Agronomic Importance: Fundamentals and applications Transcriptional regulation and Chromatin remodeling in plants (pp. 13-31). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing

Simões, C.C., Melo, J.O., Magalhaes, J.V., & Guimarães, C.T. (2012). Genetic and molecular mechanisms of Aluminium tolerance in plants. Genetics and Molecular Research, 11(3), 1949-1957.

Soehendi, P., & Srinives, R. (2005). Significance of Heterosis and Heterobeltiosis in an F1 Hybrif of Mugbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) for Hybrid seed production. Journal of Breeding and Genetics 37(2), 97-105.

Too, E.J., Were, B.J., Onkware, O.A., Ringo, J.H., Carlsson, A.S., Ouma, E., Geleta, M., & Gudu, S. (2014). Responce of selected Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) to Aluminum stress. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(21), 1651-1622.

Venu, R.C., Ma, J., Jia, Y., Liu, G., Jia, M.H., Nobuta, K., Sreerekha, M.V., Moldenhauer, K., McClung, A.M., Meyers, B.C. & Wang, G. L. (2014). Identification of candidate genes associated with positive and negative heterosis in rice. PLoS One, 9(4), e95178.

Wang, Y., Li R., Li D., Jia X., Zhou D., Li J., Lyi S., Hou S., Huang Y., Kochian L., & Liu J. (2017). NIP1;2 is a plasma membrane-localized transporter mediating aluminum uptake, translocation, and tolerance inArabidopsis. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 114(19), 5047-5052.

Yang, J., Zheng, S., He, Y., & Matsumoto, H. (2005). Aluminium resistance requires resistance to acid stress: a case study with spinach that exudes oxalate rapidly when exposed to Al stress. Journal Of Experimental Botany, 56(414), 1197-1203.

Yin, L., Mano, J., Wang, S., Tsuji, W., & Tanaka, K. (2009). The Involvement of Lipid Peroxide-Derived Aldehydes in Aluminum Toxicity of Tobacco Roots. Plant Physiology, 152(3),

27 September, 2023
How to Cite
Olung’ati, E., Gudu, S., Joseph, M., Ouma, E., Ochuodho, J., Kiplagat, O., & Kiplagat, K. (2023). Tolerance, Heritability, and Heterosis for Aluminium Toxicity Tolerance for ALXMSV Maize Single Crosses. East African Journal of Agriculture and Biotechnology, 6(1), 359-368.