Growth Performance and Feed Conversion Efficiency of Indigenous Chicken Fed on Diet Supplemented with Termites (Macrotermes bellicosus)
In view of the emerging challenges of climate change and population growth, the need to ensure consumer health safety among other factors is paramount; this practice has not been standardised, and the health risks and impacts on the environment arising from the practice are not known. While the global consumption of chicken products especially chicken meat drastically increased over the years and the trend is expected to continue. Much of the increase in demand is in the developing countries coupled with demand for the four traditional feed ingredients; maise meal, soya bean meal, fish meal, and meat meal. In all three poultry production systems that are extensive, semi-intensive and intensive, a wide range of alternative feedstuffs should be available for use. Expanding populations will create greater demand for chicken products, and the importance of feed industry resources and production systems will increase. This therefore calls for a need to enhance efforts towards increased chicken productivity. This study, therefore, evaluated the growth performance, feed conversion efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of feed supplementation termite Macrotermes bellicosus for indigenous chicken diets. Three groups of twenty IC were placed on diets comprising prepared feeds with different termite inclusion levels (0%, 2.5% and 5%) for each group for six weeks. Results reveal that the termite supplementation provides high crude protein content (43.36%), which leads to enhanced weight gain but no significant differences in the FCR of ICs compared to conventional feeds. Supplementation at different levels offers varying outcomes regarding feed intake: IC on a diet T3 had a lower feed intake compared to T2 but registered higher FBW and SGR. The use of termites contributes to smallholder farms’ food security by providing a cheaper alternative to commercial poultry feeds; and also increases the market value of IC, thus, increasing the profitability of IC production
Akullo, J., Agea, J.G., Obaa, B. B., Okwee-Acai, J. & Nakimbugwe, D. (2018). Nutrient composition of commonly consumed edible insects in the Lango sub-region of northern Uganda. International Food Research Journal, 25(1), 159-165.
Alchalabi, D. (2014). Poultry Housing Design. (PhD, AE). https://doi.org/10.13140/2.1.2729.7280
Alexander, P., Brown, C., Arneth, A., Finnigan, J., Moran, D. & Rounsevell, M. D. A. (2017). Losses, inefficiencies and waste in the global food system. Agricultural Systems, 153, 190-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2017.01.014
Boafo, H. A., Affedzie-Obresi, S., Gbemavo, D. S. J. C., Clottey, V. A., Nkegbe, E., Adu-Aboagye, G., & Kenis, M. (2019). Use of termites by farmers as poultry feed in Ghana. Insects, 10(3), 1– 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10030069
Dao, A. N. C., Sankara, F., Pousga, S., Coulibaly, K., Nacoulma, J. P., Ouedraogo, S., Kenis, M., & Somda, I. (2020). Traditional methods of harvesting termites used as poultry feed in Burkina Faso. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 40(1), 109–118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42690-019-00059-w
Demeke, S. (2012). Good Practices for Family Poultry Production Hay Box Brooder: A Milestone to Increase Rural Households Poultry Production Date of publication.
Economic Survey 2022 - Kenya National Bureau of Statistics on economics.
FAO. (2004). Small-scale poultry production. Psikologi Perkembangan, 1–224. http://www.fao.org/3/a-y5169e.pdf
Farrell, D. (2013). Poultry Development. In The role of poultry in human nutrition.
Ferket, P. & Gernat, A. (2006). Factors That Affect Feed Intake of Meat Birds: A Review. International Journal of Poultry Science, 5. 10.3923/ijps.2006.905.911.
Furlan, R. L., Filho, D. E. F., Rosa, P. S. & Macari, M. (2004). Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions? Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 6(2), 71-79. Epub. ISSN 1806-9061. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-635X2004000200001.
Gebhart, G. E. (2020). Economics of feed conversion ratios. Langston University, https://www.langston.edu/economics-feed-conversion-ratios
Godoy, D., Dewbre, J., PIN, Amegnaglo, C. J., Soglo, Y. Y., Akpa, A. F., Bickel, M., Sanyang, S., Ly, S., Kuiseu, J., Ama, S., Gautier, B. P., Officer, E. S., Officer, E. S., Eberlin, R., Officer, P., Branch, P. A., Oduro-ofori, E., Aboagye Anokye, P., … Swanson, B. E. (2014). The future of food and agriculture: trends and challenges. In The future of food and agriculture: trends and challenges, 4(4). www.fao.org/publications%0Ahttp://www.fao.org/3/ai6583e.pdf%0Ahttp://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTARD/8258261111044795683/20424536/Ag_ed_Africa.pdf%0Awww.fao.org/cfs%0Ahttp://www.jstor.org/stable/4356839%0Ahttps://ediss.uni-goettingen.de/bitstream/han
Hadley, J. T. & Corzo, A. (2016, August 18). What influences feed intake in broilers, breeders? WATT Poultry. https://www.wattagnet.com/articles/27902-what-influences-feed-intake-in-broilers-breeders?v=preview
Han, Y., & Baker, D. H. (1993). Effects of excess methionine or lysine for broilers fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Poultry Science, 72(6), 1070-1074.
Hoffmann, I. (2016). The relative contribution of indigenous chicken breeds to poultry meat and egg production and consumption in the developing countries of Africa and Asia. [Paper presentation]. Proceedings of the 12th European Poultry Conference. Verona, Italy.
Joel, H. M. (2018). Consumer willingness to pay for chicken meat derived from chicken fed on insect-based feed in Kenya. (Master’s thesis, University of Nairobi). http://hdl.handle.net/11295/105845
Ke, Yunling & Wu, Wenjing & Zhang, Shijun & Li, Zhi-Qiang. (2017). Morphological and Genetic Evidence for the Synonymy of Reticulitermes Species: Reticulitermes dichrous and Reticulitermes guangzhouensis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Florida Entomologist. 100. 101-108. 10.1653/024.100.0115.
Ketaren, P., Sinurat, A., Purwadaria, T., Kompiang, I., & Amir, M. (2014). Use of termite
(Glyptotermes montanus) as poultry feed. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, 6(2): 100-
Kenya Bureau Standards. (2021). Compounded Indigenous (Kienyeji) Chicken Feed — Specification. Nairobi: KEBS. DKS 2957: 2021. ICS 65.120
Magothe, T. M., Okeno, T. O., Muhuyi, W. B., & Kahi, A. K. (2012). Indigenous chicken production in Kenya: I. Current status. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 68(1), 119–132. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043933912000128
Mormino, K. S. (2021). When to move chicks from brooder to chicken coop. Chicken Chick. https://the-chicken-chick.com/when-to-move-chicks-from-brooder-to/
Mwiinga, L., Ogara, S., & Chaamwe, N. (2022). The Influence of Mobile App and Media, Towards Entomophagy Awareness and Acceptability. International Journal of Advanced Research, 5(1), 131-144.https://doi.org/10.37284/ijar.5.1.824
Mutungi, C., Irungu, F. G., Nduko, J., Mutua, F., Affognon, H., Nakimbugwe, D., Ekesi, S. & Fiaboe, K. K. M. (2017): Postharvest processes of edible insects in Africa: A review of processing methods, and the implications for nutrition, safety and new products development. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 59(7). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2017.1365330
Maia, R. C., Albino, L. F. T., Rostagno, H. S., Junior, M. L. X., Kreuz, B. S., Silva, R. L., Faria, B. D. & Calderano, A. A. (2021). Low crude protein diets for broiler chickens aged 8 to 21 days should have a 50% essential-to-total nitrogen ratio. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 271. ISSN: 0377-8401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2020.114709.
Okeno, T. O., Kahi, A. K., & Peters, K. J. (2012). Characterisation of indigenous chicken production systems in Kenya. Tropical animal health and production, 44(3), 601–608. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9942-x
Sogbesan, O., & Ugwumba, A. (2008). Nutritional Evaluation of Termite (Macrotermes subhyalinus) Meal as Animal Protein Supplements in the Diets of Heterobranchus longifilis (Valenciennes, 1840) Fingerlings. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 8, 149-157.
Solomon, M. D., Solomon, L. D., Jaryum, K. H., Dabak, J. D. & Sambo, S. H. (2020). Nutrient potential and economic benefit of varies Coleoptera (grub worm): Implication for food security. EAS Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 2(5), 217-221.
Ssepuuya, G., Namulawa, V., Mbabazi, D., Mugerwa, S., Fuuna, P., Nampijja, Z., Ekesi, S., Fiaboe, K. K. M. & Nakimbugwe, D. (2017). Use of insects for fish and poultry compound feed in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 3(4), 289-302.
Wiedemann, S., McGahan, E., & Murphy, C. (2017). Resource use and environmental impacts from Australian chicken meat production. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140, 675- 684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.086
Williams, P. (2007). Nutritional composition of red meat. Nutrition and Dietetics, 64(4),113-119.
Copyright (c) 2023 Milongo Olonde Susan, Matilda Atieno Ouma, PhD, Margaret Lukuyu, PhD, Lucky Mwiinga
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.