Production and Characterisation of Pectin from Cocoa Bean Shells
Cocoa bean shells constitute the major waste generated from the industrial processing of cocoa beans. The shells contain about 9% of pectin and extracting it would be of economic and ecological importance. However, limited knowledge on the characteristics of the pectin from cocoa bean shells and the extraction conditions, which would yield pectin of good quality and sufficient quantity, restrict the possible use of the shells as a source of commercial pectin. The objective of this study was to extract and characterise pectin from cocoa bean shells, with focus on finding the optimum extraction conditions. The conventional hot dilute acid extraction method was used. 12 M hydrochloric acid was used to acidify water to pH 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0. Extractions were carried out at temperatures of 60, 70, and 80 °C, for different times of 0.5, 1, and 2 h. The effects of each of the conditions on yield and other properties of pectin were evaluated. Depending on the conditions under which cocoa bean shells were treated, both high methoxyl and low methoxyl pectins were extracted. At the optimum conditions of pH 3.5, extraction time of 2 h and 80 °C extraction temperature, high methoxyl pectin was obtained. The yield was 4.7%, the degree of esterification was 68.9% and the anhydrouronic acid content was 71.2%. While the methoxyl content was 8.6%, the equivalent mass was found to be 805.8 g/eq. Moisture and ash contents were 6.7 and 10.3%, respectively, and the pH of the pectin hydrocolloid was 3.7. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the presence of functional groups found in the pectin structure. The intrinsic viscosity varied between 0.075–0.088 m3/kg and the molecular mass ranged from 23,470 - 42,384 g/mol. The results revealed that the shells are a viable source for commercial pectin, while necessary investigations focusing on the gelling, thickening, emulsifying, texturing, and stabilising potentials of the pectin from cocoa bean shells would inform of the areas of application
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