Impact of Population Dynamics on Solid Waste Generation Trends in Dar Es Salaam Metropolitan
Rapid population growth observed across the global landscape can be traced from the dawn of the last half of the twentieth century. The period is marked by enormous land use and land cover changes, the rising rate of declining biological resources as well a continuous high rate of urbanisation. Dar es Salaam City, once a fishing village but now the most industrialised and urbanised city in Tanzania, has not been spared of such changes. This article composition intended to uncover the correlation between population growth and solid waste generation in the city of Dar es Salaam. The data inputs involved Tanzania’s national population census for the years 2002, 2012, and 2022, but also shapefiles for Dar es Salaam City and the United Republic of Tanzania. Dar es Salaam city’s wards, the lowest but one administrative level in Tanzania, were central in this study as the lowest unit of analysis. Data management for this spatiotemporal study was done in Microsoft spreadsheet, while data analysis involved the use of the ArcMap platform of ArcGIS version 10.5. The results show a strong relationship between population growth and municipal solid waste generation in Dar es Salaam city. From the visual results, the overall impact of population on solid waste generation is well presented across both census years. Despite varying at different times in the twenty years of the study period, wards such as Kunduchi, Mabibo, Majohe, Mbagala Kuu, Mbezi, Mianzini, Saranga, Segerea, Vingunguti, Wazo, and Charambe produced significant amounts of solid waste. Across the study period, Vingunguti and Majohe were revealed to be the only two wards in the city that have continued generating high solid wastes. These visual results display the almost exact location of a high waste generation hence delivering information necessary for strategic and informed decision-making, henceforth, policy formulation towards solid generation and management.
Alananga, S. S., & Igangula, N. H. (2022). Constrained cooking energy choices: Understanding up-the-ladder stacking behaviour in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Energy Policy, 168, 113087.
Ali, M. M., & Al-Kodmany, K. (2012). Tall buildings and urban habitat of the 21st century: a global perspective. Buildings, 2(4), 384–423.
Aryampa, S., Maheshwari, B., Sabiiti, E., Bateganya, N. L., & Bukenya, B. (2019). Status of waste management in the East African Cities: Understanding the drivers of waste generation, collection and disposal and their impacts on Kampala City’s sustainability. Sustainability, 11(19), 5523.
Biswas, A., & Singh, S. G. (2021). Tanzania: An Assessment of the Solid-Waste-Management Ecosystem. Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi.
Chen, D. M.-C., Bodirsky, B. L., Krueger, T., Mishra, A., & Popp, A. (2020). The world’s growing municipal solid waste: trends and impacts. Environmental Research Letters, 15(7), 74021.
Coelho, A., & De Brito, J. (2012). Influence of construction and demolition waste management on the environmental impact of buildings. Waste Management, 32(3), 532–541.
Coffetti, D., Crotti, E., Gazzaniga, G., Carrara, M., Pastore, T., & Coppola, L. (2022). Pathways towards sustainable concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 154, 106718.
da Silva, L., Marques Prietto, P. D., & Pavan Korf, E. (2019). Sustainability indicators for urban solid waste management in large and medium-sized worldwide cities. Journal of Cleaner Production, 237, 117802. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.117802
Gebremedhin, K. G., Gebremedhin, F. G., Amin, M. M., & Godfrey, L. K. (2018). State of waste management in Africa. United Nations Environment Programme.
Ghosh, S. K. (2016). Swachhaa Bharat Mission (SBM) – A Paradigm Shift in Waste Management and Cleanliness in India. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 35, 15–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2016.07.002
Kazuva, E., & Zhang, J. (2019). Analysing municipal solid waste treatment scenarios in rapidly urbanising cities in developing countries: The case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(11), 2035.
Kazuva, E., Zhang, J., Tong, Z., Liu, X.-P., Memon, S., & Mhache, E. (2021). GIS-and MCD-based suitability assessment for optimised location of solid waste landfills in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(9), 11259–11278.
Kazuva, E., Zhang, J., Tong, Z., Si, A., & Na, L. (2018). The DPSIR model for environmental risk assessment of municipal solid waste in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(8), 1692.
Khan, S., Anjum, R., Raza, S. T., Bazai, N. A., & Ihtisham, M. (2022). Technologies for municipal solid waste management: Current status, challenges, and future perspectives. Chemosphere, 288, 132403.
Kim, Y. M., Park, M. H., Jeong, S., Lee, K. H., & Kim, J. Y. (2021). Evaluation of error inducing factors in unmanned aerial vehicle mounted detector to measure fugitive methane from solid waste landfill. Waste Management, 124, 368–376.
Kirama, A., & Mayo, A. W. (2016). Challenges and prospects of private sector participation in solid waste management in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Habitat International, 53, 195–205.
Kumar, A., & Agrawal, A. (2020). Recent trends in solid waste management status, challenges, and potential for the future Indian cities – A review. Current Research in Environmental Sustainability, 2, 100011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crsust.2020.100011
Lam, K. C., Bryant, R. G., & Wainright, J. (2015). Application of spatial interpolation method for estimating the spatial variability of rainfall in Semiarid New Mexico, USA. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4), 108.
Manyama, M. T., Hepelwa, A. S., & Nahonyo, C. L. (2021). GIS Based Environmental Cost− Benefit Analysis of Built Environment at Dar es Salaam Coastline Metropolitan. African Journal of Economic Review, 9(2), 45–61.
Martínez de Anguita, P., Rivera, S., Beneitez, J. M., Cruz, F., & Espinal, F. M. (2011). A GIS cost-benefit analysis-based methodology to establish a payment for environmental services system in watersheds: application to the Calan River in Honduras. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 30(1–2), 79–110.
Mbuligwe, S. E., Kassenga, G. R., Kaseva, M. E., & Chaggu, E. J. (2002). Potential and constraints of composting domestic solid waste in developing countries: findings from a pilot study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 36(1), 45–59.
Mkalawa, C. C. (2016). Analysing dar es salaam urban change and its spatial pattern. International Journal of Urban Planning and Transportation, 31(1), 1138–1150.
Mohsenizadeh, M., Tural, M. K., & Kentel, E. (2020). Municipal solid waste management with cost minimisation and emission control objectives: A case study of Ankara. Sustainable Cities and Society, 52, 101807.
Morano, P., Tajani, F., & Locurcio, M. (2017). GIS application and econometric analysis for the verification of the financial feasibility of roof-top wind turbines in the city of Bari (Italy). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 70, 999–1010.
Naveen, B. P. (2021). Scenarios of waste management nexus in Bangalore. Energy Nexus, 1, 100004.
NAVEEN, B. P. (2021). Scenarios of waste management nexus in Bangalore. Energy Nexus, 1(July), 100004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nexus.2021.100004
Nyambod, E. M. (2010). Environmental consequences of rapid urbanisation: Bamenda City, Cameroon. Journal of Environmental Protection, 1(01), 15.
Nyampundu, K., Mwegoha, W. J. S., & Millanzi, W. C. (2020). Sustainable solid waste management Measures in Tanzania: An exploratory descriptive case study among vendors at Majengo market in Dodoma City. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08670-0
Pasquini, L., van Aardenne, L., Godsmark, C. N., Lee, J., & Jack, C. (2020). Emerging climate change-related public health challenges in Africa: A case study of the heat-health vulnerability of informal settlement residents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Science of the Total Environment, 747, 141355.
Popp, A. (2020). The world’s growing municipal solid waste : trends and impacts Recent citations The world’s growing municipal solid waste : trends and impacts. Environmental Research Letters, 15, 13.
Sanjeevi, V., & Shahabudeen, P. (2015). Development of performance indicators for municipal solid waste management (PIMS): A review. Waste Management and Research, 33(12), 1052–1065. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X15607428
Senzige, J. P., Makinde, D. O., Njau, K., & Nkansah-Gyeke, Y. (2014). Factors influencing solid waste generation and composition in urban areas of Tanzania: The case of Dar-es-Salaam.
Tam, V., & Lu, W. (2016). Construction waste management profiles, practices, and performance: a cross-jurisdictional analysis in four countries. Sustainability, 8(2), 190.
Tang, M., Agrawal, P., Pongpaichet, S., & Jain, R. (2015). Geospatial interpolation analytics for data streams in eventshop. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), 1–6.
Thomson, G., & Newman, P. (2018). Urban fabrics and urban metabolism–from sustainable to regenerative cities. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 132, 218–229.
Todd, P. A., Heery, E. C., Loke, L. H. L., Thurstan, R. H., Kotze, D. J., & Swan, C. (2019). Towards an urban marine ecology: characterising the drivers, patterns and processes of marine ecosystems in coastal cities. Oikos, 128(9), 1215–1242.
Villoria Sáez, P., del Río Merino, M., & Porras-Amores, C. (2012). Estimation of construction and demolition waste volume generation in new residential buildings in Spain. Waste Management & Research, 30(2), 137–146.
Wang, Y., Shi, Y., Zhou, J., Zhao, J., Maraseni, T., & Qian, G. (2021). Implementation effect of municipal solid waste mandatory sorting policy in Shanghai. Journal of Environmental Management, 298, 113512.
Warunasinghe, W. A. A. I., & Yapa, P. I. (2016). A Survey on Household Solid Waste Management (SWM) with Special Reference to a Peri-urban Area (Kottawa) in Colombo. Procedia Food Science, 6(Icsusl 2015), 257–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profoo.2016.02.038
Yaacob, M., Ibrahim, M. H., & Nasir, Z. M. (2019). Solid Waste Management in Malaysia: The Perspectives of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Youths on Consumers’ Commitment. In Environmental Sustainability and Education for Waste Management (pp. 27–41). Springer.
Yau, Y. (2012). Stakeholder engagement in waste recycling in a high‐rise setting. Sustainable Development, 20(2), 115–127.
Zarco-Perello, S., & Simões, N. (2017). Ordinary kriging vs inverse distance weighting: spatial interpolation of the sessile community of Madagascar reef, Gulf of Mexico. PeerJ, 5, e4078.
Zheng, L., Wu, H., Zhang, H., Duan, H., Wang, J., Jiang, W., Dong, B., Liu, G., Zuo, J., & Song, Q. (2017). Characterising the generation and flows of construction and demolition waste in China. Construction and Building Materials, 136, 405–413.
Copyright (c) 2023 Abdon Salim Mapunda, Kimwaga Richard Joseph, Shaban Kasuwi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.