Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Garissa County, Kenya
The public health impact of H. pylori (HP) infection is gradually becoming evident. The bacterium is now being implicated as an etiologic agent in various gastric diseases. In developing countries, HP infection is markedly more prevalent at younger ages than in developed countries. According to the World Gastroenterology Organization, the prevalence of H. pylori in Kenya was 48% in ages between 2-4, 80% at the age of 6, and 95% in the adult population. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Pylori infection among pregnant patients attending the antenatal clinic in Garissa County, Kenya. This study utilized a cross-sectional study design to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Probability proportion to the size and a simple random technique was used to collect the data. Blood samples drawn from study participants were tested according to the standard H. pylori tests and as per the Kit manufacturers’ instructions and procedure. Information from the laboratory analysis and questionnaires were then recorded in the questionnaire. Informed consent was obtained from the study participants before the study data collection tools were administered. Data Collected was entered into Excel and then exported to SPSS version 20. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe data, while Chi-square and binary logistic regression analysis were used to establish the association between the independent and dependent variables. Results show that the seroprevalence of H. pylori among sample pregnant women was 45%. Inferential analysis shows that respondents levels of education (χ2 = 10.07, df = 1, p = 0.002), parity (χ2 = 15.776, df = 3, p = 0.001) and type of toilet (χ2 (10.415(3), p = 0.015) was associated with the prevalence of H. pylori at bivariate level. Logistic regression analysis establishes that having a higher level of education (A.O.R = 2.483, p = 0.023, living in urban areas (A.O.R = 0.274, p = 0.014), being in casual employment A.O.R = 0.208 p = 0.024), having more than four children (A.O.R = 7.971, p = 0.006) and sharing of beds (A.O.R = 0.034, p = 0.0001) were predictors of H. pylori infection. This study concludes that about half of the study participants had H. pylori infection and socio-demographic and environmental conditions contribute to the prevalence. There is a need to sensitize pregnant women on the cause and prevention of H. pylori. Also, maintaining proper environmental and sanitation hygiene will aid in reducing transmission
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