Risk Factors and Urogenital Schistomiasis Prevalence among Primary School Children in Makurdi, Nigeria
Urogenital schistosomiasis in humans is an infection of public health importance caused by infection with Schistosoma heamatobium. The study investigated the risk factors and intensity of urogenital schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in Makurdi, Nigeria. Eight hundred (800) school pupils consisting of 200 per school, aged 5 – 20 years in Angwan Jukun, Angwan Reke, Agbo and Ijaha communities, respectively were enrolled for the study. Suitably designed questionnaire was used to document data on the demographics as well as relevant information of the participants. Urine samples were collected from consented participants between 10 am – 2 pm, into pre-labelled plastic sample bottles following aseptic techniques. The samples were subjected to standard parasitological techniques for determination and quantification of parasite in the zoology laboratory of Benue State University, Makurdi. Research data was subjected to chi square analysis to ascertain association of the research variables with schistosomiasis prevalence in the study area. The study filed an overall prevalence of 23.75% (190/800). Infection rates were significantly associated with age as age group 16-20 years had the highest prevalence (P<0.000). Males 25.42% (122/800) were slightly more infected than females 21.25% (68/800) (P>0.05). Water contact pattern of participants revealed a highly significant association with schistosomiasis prevalence (p<0.001)). Grazing activity 50% (1/2) displayed higher infection prevalence followed by > 1 activity 34.65% (79/228) while no infection was seen in snail hunters. The association between the presence and type of livestock sharing open water sources with the communities was statistically significant (P<0.05). Makurdi is endemic for urogenital schistosomiasis and related risk factors. The roles of other definitive hosts in ensuring continual disease transmission and possible zoonosis should be investigated
Abajobir, A.A., Abate, K. H., Abbafati, C. (2017). Global, regional and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for global burden of disease study. Lancet, 390:1260-1344.
Alabi, P., Oladejo, S. O. & Odaibo, A.B. (2018). Prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Southwest, Nigeria. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 10(11): 413-417. http://www.academicjournals.org/JPHE
Auta, T., Ezra, J.J., Rufai, H.S., Alabi, E.D. & Anthony, E. (2020). Urinary schistosomiasis among vulnerable children in security challenged district of Safana, Katsina State-Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health, 41(23): 73-81. http://www.sdiarticle4.com/review-history/56894.
Chiamah, O.C., Ubachukwu, P.O., Anorue, C.O. & Ebi, S. (2019). Urinary schistosomiasis in Ebonyi State, Nigeria from 2006 to 2017. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 87-9.
Chikweundu, J.I., Atsuwe, T.S., Obisike, V.U. & Igbor, O.E. (2019). Prevalence and Distribution of urogenital schistosomiasis and trichomoniasis in Oju LGA, Benue State, Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Parasitology, 2(4): 1-5
Dawaki, S., Al-mekhlafi, H.M., Ithoi, I., Ibrahim, J., Abdulsalam, A.M., Ahmed, A., Sady, H., Nasr, N.A. & Atroosh, W.M. (2015). The menace of schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State. Plos One, 10(11): e0143667.doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/jounal.pone.0143667
Dawaki, S., Al-mekhlafi, H.M., Ithoi, I., Ibrahim, J., Abdusalam, A.M., Ahmed, A, A., Sady, H. Atroosh, W.M. and Surin, J. (2016). Prevalence and risk factors of schistosomiasis among hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, 58:(54):1-9
Deribew, K., Yewhalaw, D., Erko, B. and Mekonnen, Z. (2022). Urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence and diagnostic performance of urine filtration and urinalysis reagent strip in schoolchildren, Ethiopia. Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 17(7): e0271569. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0271569
Gower, C.M., Vince, L. & Webster, J.P. (2017). Should we be treating animal schistosomiasis in Africa? The need for health economic evaluation of schistosomiasis control in people and their livestock. Transaction of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 3(8): e412.
Hassan, J., Mohammed, K., Opaluwa, S.A., Adamu, T., Nataala, S.U., Garba, M. K., … Bunza, N.M. (2017) diagnostic potentials of haematuria and proteinuria in urinary Schistosomiasis among Schhol-age children in Aliero Local Government Area, Kebbi State, North-Western Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(4): 1-9
Hosea, Z.Y., Liamngee, K. & Geraji, J.J. (2019). A survey of urinary schistosomiasis among secondary school students in Jalingo town, Jalingo Local Government Area, Taraba State. Asian Journal of Research in Zoology, 2(4): 1-6. http://www.sdiarticle3.com/review-history/50563.
Iboyi, M.O., Onekutu, A. & Amuta, E.U. (2018). Prevalence and risk factors of urinary schistosomiasis among school age children in Kastina-ala Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 5(11): 499-506
Idu, M.U. & Bwari, U.H. (2021). Urogenital schistosomiasis study in a rural community, North West Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, 7(1): 12-20. http://www.sdiarticle4.com/review-history/67541.
Kabiru, M., Ikeh, E.I., Aziah, I., Julia, O., Fabiyi, J.P. & Mohammed, R.A. (2013). Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection. A community based survey among school children and adult in Wamakko town, Sokoto State, Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Medicine and public Health, 2(1), 12-22
Muhammad, I.A., abdullahi, K., Bala, A.Y. & Shinkafi, S.A. (2019). Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in Wamakko Local Government, Sokoto State, Nigeria. The Journal of basic and Applied Zoology, 80:22. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41936-019-0093-3
Nwachukwu, P.C., Ohaeri, C.C., Ukpai, O.M., Irole-Eze, O.P. & Amamechi, E.C, (2018). Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection among school-aged children in Afikpo North Local Government Area, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Sri Lankan Journal of Biology, 3(2): 1-8
Obisike, V.U., Victor, E.M., Uzoma, V.C. & Amuta, E.U. (2021). Urinary schistosomiasis in some Outkpo communities in Otukpo Local Government Area of Benue State Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medicinal Principles and Clinical Practice, 4(1): 1-6. http://www.sdiarticle4.com/review-history/63710.
Odeniran, P.O., Omolabi, K.F. & Ademola, I.O. (2020). Epidemiological dynamics and associated risk factors of S. hematobium and its snail vectors in Nigeria: a meta-analysis (1983-2018). Pathogens and Global health, 114 (2): 76-90. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/20477724.2020.1728164.
Ojo, J.A., Adedokun, S.A., Akindele, A.A., Olorunfemi, A.B., Otutu, O.A., Ojurongbe, T.A., Thomas, B.N., Velavan, T.P. & Ojurongbe, O. (2021). Prevalence of urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis among school children in South-West Nigeria. Plos Neglected tropical Diseases, 15(7): e0009628. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009628.
Omenesa, H.O, Bishop, H.G. & Raji, H.M. (2015). Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among pupils attending primary schools in Bomo village, Zaria-Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science, 3(5):14-19
Onah, I.E., Omudu, E.A., Anumba, J.U., Uweh, P.O. & Idoko, M.A. (2017). A comparative evaluation of prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in two contrasting communities in Benue State, Nigeria. International Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy, 2(3): 48-52
Opara, K.N., Wilson, E.U., Yaro, C.A., Alkazmi, L., Udoidung, N.S., Chikezie, F.M., Bassey, B.E. & Batiha, G.E. (2021). Prevalence, risk factors, and coinfection of urogenital schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among primary school children in Biase, Southern Nigeria. Hindawi Journal of Parasitological Research, 6618394. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6618394.
Pourhoseingholi, M.A.,Vahedi, M. and Rahimzadeh, M. (2013). Sample size calculation in medical studies. Gastroenterology Hepatology Bed Bench, 6(1):14-17).
Usman, A.M. and Babeker, E.A. (2017). A study on the aspects of epidemiology of urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis in Bauchi state, Nigeria. Science World Journal, 12(4):2
Webster, B.L., Diaw, O.T., Seye, M.M., Webster, J.P. and Rollinson, D. (2013). Introgressive hybridization of Schistosoma haematobium group species in Senegal: species barrier break down between ruminant and human schistosomes. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7:e2110.
World Health Organisation (WHO) (2013). Schistosomiasis: Progress Report 2001–2011, Strategic Plan 2012–2020. World Health Organization, Geneva (2013) https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/78074. (Accessed 04 September, 2023)
Yunusa, E.U., Awosan, K.J., Ibrahim, M.T.O. & Isah, B.A. (2016). Prevalence, epidemiological occurrence and predictors of occurrence of urinary schistosomiasis among Almajiri School Children in Sokoto, Nigeria. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 8(3): 22-29