Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Parasites among Patients Attending Designated Tuberculosis Clinics in Rivers State, Nigeria

  • Itoro Imaobong Sounyo University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital
  • LeBari Barine Gboeloh Ignatius Ajuru University of Education
Keywords: Occurrence, Gastrointestinal Parasites, Tuberculosis, Designated Clinics, Rivers State
Share Article:


Diseases of gastrointestinal parasites remain a major public health concern. This study was aimed at determining the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites among patients attending designated tuberculosis clinics in Rivers State, Nigeria. The clinics included Chest clinic, Rumuigbo, General hospital, Ahoada and Meridian hospital. The study was conducted between July 2020 and August 2021. Stool and blood samples were collected from 1288 participants and examined for the presence of ova, cysts, oocyst and trophozoites of gastrointestinal parasites using formol-ether concentration and Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. ELISA was used to examine the blood samples for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia. Out of the 1288 patients examined, 580 (45%) were infected and this was statistically significant (p<0.05). Gastrointestinal parasites identified included Ancyclostoma spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Cryptosporidium spp, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia. Cryptosporidium spp. was the most prevalent (p<0.05). Females had a higher prevalence (55.9%) than males (44.1%), and the age group 11-20 years were most infected. The occurrence of gastrointestinal parasite infection was higher in the wet season (p<0.05). Sources of drinking water and housing types were risk factors that had a significant influence on the infection (p<0.05). The gastrointestinal parasite was not influenced by the occupation, as well as the educational levels of the participants. The study showed that tuberculosis patients were more infected than non-tuberculosis patients, and occurrence was higher in rural areas than in urban areas; both were significant (p<0.05). Detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium using non-ELISA and ELISA techniques were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The study showed a higher prevalence of infection; therefore, there is a need to enhance health education on the mode of transmission of gastrointestinal parasites and improve on personal and environmental hygiene of tuberculosis patients and the population as a whole; to reduce the occurrence of infection


Download data is not yet available.


Abate, E., Belayneh, M., Gelaw, A., Idh, J., Getachew, A., Alemu, S., Diro, E., Fikre, N., Britton, S.,Elias, D., Aseffa, A., Stendahl, O., & Schon, T. (2012). The impact of asymptomatic helminth coinfection in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis in northwest Ethiopia. PLOS One Journal, 7 (8), e42901.

Akinbo, F. O., Okaka, C. E., & Omoregie, R. (2011). Seasonal Variation OF Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among HIV-Positive Patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Ethiopia Journal of Health Science, 21(3), 191–194.

Al-Daoody, A.A. K., Ali, F., Sadiq, L., Mamand, A., Salah, R.., & Muhammed, H. (2021). Investigation of Intestinal Protozoan Infections Among Food-Handlers In Erbil City, Iraq. Plant Archives, 21,1367-1372.

Alemu, A., Bitew, Z. W., & Worku, T. (2020). Intestinal parasites coinfection among tuberculosis patients in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infectious Diseases,20(510), 1-20.

Alemu, A., Kebede, A., Dagne, B., Amare, M., Diriba, G., Yenew, B., Tesfaye, E., Tadesse, M., Sinshaw, W., Challa, D., & Desta, K. (2019). Intestinal parasites coinfection and associated factors among active pulmonary tuberculosis patients in selected health centers, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: unmatched case control study, Biomedical Central Infectious Diseases, 19 (407), 1-10.

Alemu, G., & Mama, M. (2017). Intestinal helminth coinfection and associated factors among tuberculosis patients in Arba Minch, Ethiopia. BMC Infectious Diseases,17(1),68-72.

Arora, D.R., & Brij, B.A. (2010). Medical Parasitology. (3rd Ed), CBS Publishers and Distributors.

Ayele, B. H., Geleto, A., & Muhedin, R. (2019). Prevalence of feco-oral transmitted protozoan infections and association factors among university student in Ethiopia a cross sectional study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19(499), 1-8.

Azuonwu, O., & Wokem, G. N. (2018). Investigation of Prevalence of Tuberculosis Infection Outcome in Two Government Owned Hospitals in Port Harcourt, Niger Delta. Journal of Tuberculosis and Therapeutics, 3(1), 1-4.

Ben, A. L., Belhassen, K., Sabbahi S, Karanis, P., & Nouiri, I. (2018). Assessment of the parasitological quality of water stored in private cisterns in rural areas of Tunisia. Journal of Water and Health, 16(5), 737-749.

Cedric, Y., Nadia, N.A. C., Ebai, C.B., Ngoufo, F.N., Teke, G.N., Bihnyuy, T.L., Dulafe, J., Gabriel, T. H., Payne, V.K., & Kuokuo Kimbi, H. K. (2020). Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastrointestinal Protozoans in Ntamuchie, Mezam Division, North West Region, Cameroon. Open Journal of Public Health, 2(2), 1-5.

Center for Disease Control (2020). Parasites-about Parasites. https://cdc.gov/parasites/about.htmland-treatment#fn_1.

Cirak, V.K., & Bauer, C. (2004). Comparison of conventional coproscopical methods and commercial coproantigen ELISA kits for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections in dogs and cats. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 117, 9-10.

Dudlova, A., Juris, P., Jurisova, S., Jarcuska, P., & Krcmery, V. (2016). Epidemiology and geographical distribution of gastrointestinal parasitic infection in humans in Slovakia Helminthology, 53 (4), 309 – 317.

Egwuogu, C.C., Okeke, H. U., Emenike, H.I., & Abayomi, T.A. (2016). Rainwater quality assessment in Obio/Akpor LGA of Rivers state, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology, 5(8), 374-381.

Eze, N. C., Abah, A. E., & Ezeoru, D. O. (2019). Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Patients of Psychiatric Hospital Rumuigbo, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health, 37(2), 1-8.

George, J.P., Anuradha, R., Kumaran, P.P., Chandrasekaran, V., Nutman, T.B., & Babu, S. (2013). Modulation of mycobacterial-specific Th1 and Th17 cells in latent tuberculosis by coincident hookworm infection. Journal of Immunology, 190(10), 5161–5168.

Hajare, S. T., Gobene, R. K., Chauhan, N.M., & Eriso, f. (2021). Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite Infections and Their Associated Factors among Food Handlers Working in Selected Catering Establishments from Bule Hora, Ethiopia. BioMed Research International, 2021, 1-15.

Idu, M.E., Omudu, E. A., & Amuta, E.U. (2016). Polyparasitism in tuberculosis patients and apparently healthy individuals in Benue State, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Parasitology, 37(1), 108-112.

Li, X-X., & Zhou, X. (2013). Coinfection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans: a systematic review. Parasites & Vectors, 6(79), 1-12.

Mekonnen, H.S. & Ekubagewargies, D.T. (2019). Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasites among under-five children attending Woreta Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19(256), 1-8.

Mhimbira, F., Hella, J., Said, K., Kamwela, L., Sasamalo, M., Maroa, T., Chiryamkubi, M., Mhalu, G., Schindler, C., Reither, K., Knopp, S., Utzinger, J., Gagneux, S., & Fenner, L. (2017). Prevalence and clinical relevance of helminth coinfections among tuberculosis patients in urban Tanzania. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases,11(2), 1-19.

Mohammed, K., Kabiru Gulma, M., Yahaya, M., Spencer, T.H.I., Nataala, S.U., Garba, M.K., Imam, A.U., Aschroft, O. F., & Michea, U. (2019). Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Patients Attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases, 2(1), 1-9.

Nigus, D., & Amir, A. (2021). Factors among School Children in Merhabete District, Central Ethiopia. Journal of Parasitology Research, 2021, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9916456

Ochei, J., & Kolhtkar, A. (2007). Medical laboratory science: Theory and Practice Part three Parasitology. Tata McGraw-Hill publishing company limited.

Sitotaw B, Mekuriaw H.,& Damtie D. (2019). Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among Jawi primary school children, Jawi town, northwest Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 19(1), 341.

Taghipour, A., Tabarsi, P., Sohrabi, M.R., Riahi, S. M., Rostami, A.R., Mirjalali, H., Malih, N. & Haghighi, A. (2019). Frequency, associated factors and Clinical symptoms of intestinal parasites among tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis groups in Iran: A Comparative cross-sectional study. Transactions of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, 113(5), 234-241.

Tegegne, Y. Wondmagegn, T. Worku, L. & Jejaw Zeleke, A. (2018). Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Hindawi Journal of Parasitology Research, 2018(5), 1-6.

Tesfaye, S., Zerfu, B., & Desta, K. (2022) Magnitude and associated factors of Intestinal Parasitosis and Tuberculosis among Tuberculosis suspected patients attending Kuyu General Hospital, North Shewa, Oromia, Ethiopia. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 16(1), 1-19.

Tyoalumun, K., Abubakar, S., & Nongu, C. (2016). Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and their Association with Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban Pre-School Children in Benue State, Nigeria. International Journal of Maternal and Child Health and AIDS, 5(2), 146-152.

Ugwu, K.O., Agbo, M.C., & Ezeonu, I.M. (2021). Prevalence of Tuberculosis, Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and HIV/TB Coinfection in Enugu, Nigeria. African Journal of Infectious Diseases, 15(2), 24-30.

Vivornpun, S., Srinchaipon, N., BunKasem, U., Srirungruang, S., & Nuchprayoon, S. (2016). Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infection among children in Thailand. A large-scale screening and comparative study of three standard detection methods. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 47(6), 1223-1234.

Youn, S., Kabir, M., Haque, R., & Petri, W. (2009). Evaluation of a screening Test for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Parasites. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 47(2), 451-452.

World Health Organization (2021). Global Tuberculosis Report. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240037021

23 February, 2023
How to Cite
Sounyo, I., & Gboeloh, L. (2023). Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Parasites among Patients Attending Designated Tuberculosis Clinics in Rivers State, Nigeria. East African Journal of Health and Science, 6(1), 41-54. https://doi.org/10.37284/eajhs.6.1.1105