Contribution of Non-Timber Forest Products to Local Communities: The Case of Belete Gera Forest, Southwest Ethiopia
Forests provides non-timber forest products (NTFPs), which support the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Studies on the contribution of NTFPs to local people's livelihood improvement and poverty alleviation have grown in popularity. However, information on the contribution of NTFPs to annual household income is limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of NTFPs in local peoples' livelihoods. The study employed a multistage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information during a face-to-face interview. Furthermore, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data on major NTFPs and triangulate data from HHs surveyed. An interview was conducted with 181 households in and around the forest at random. The most important NTFPs extracted from the forest were forest coffee, honey, charcoal, Aframomum kororima, fuel wood, lianas, Rhamnus prinoides, and medicinal plants. According to the findings, after crop production, NTFPs were the second most important source of income, accounting for 28% of total household income on average. Household NTFP contributions vary by wealth category, with poor (46%) and medium (40%) households contributing more than rich (14%). In general, income from various NTFPs contributes significantly to the annual income of local households, providing an important incentive to conserve forest resources in a sustainable manner. Better policies and strategies are required to sustain local people's livelihoods while conserving forest resources.
Agbogidi, O. M. (2010). Ethno-botanical survey of the non-timber forest products in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. African Journal of Plant Science, 4(3), 183- 89. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajps.
Ahenkan A, & Boon E. (2008). Enhancing food security, poverty reduction and sustainable forest management in Ghana through Non-Timber Forest Products farming: Case study of Sefwi published online by GRIN publishing at www.grin.com/de/preview/.html (Retrieved August), 8.
Aiyeloja, A. A., Oladele, A. T., & Ezeugo, O. E. (2012). Evaluation of non-timber forest products trade In Ihiala local government area, Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Nature, 3 (2), 366-372.
Bwalya, S. M. (2013). Household Dependence on Forest Income in Rural Zambia. Zambia Soc. J, 2, 1.
Chou, P. (2017). The Importance of Non-timber Forest Products in Rural Livelihoods and Ecosystem Services at Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary, Cambodia. International Journal of Environmental and Rural Development, 8(1), 7-13.
Debela, B., Kessy, J., & Embaye, K. (2019). Contribution of Non-Timber Forest Products to the Rural Household Economy : Gore district, south western Ethiopia.
Demie, G., Negash, M., & Awas, T. (2018). Ethno botanical study of Medicinal plants used by indigenous people in and around Dire Sheikh Hussein heritage site of South-eastern Ethiopia Journal of Ethno pharmacology, 220, 87–93.
Endamana, D., Angu, K. A., Akwah, G. N., Shepherd, G., & Ntumwe, B. (2016). Contribution of non-timber forest products to cash and non-cash income of remote forest communities in Central Africa. International Forestry Review, 20, 1–16.
Heubach, K., Wittig, R., Nuppenau, E. A., & Hahn, K. (2011). The economic importance of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) for livelihood maintenance of rural West African communities: A case study from northern Benin. Ecological Economics, 70(11), 1991-2001.
Ibrahim, A. O., Ampitan, T. A., Adeniji, O. A., Olayinka, A. P., & Babatunde, K. O. (2016). Utilization of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in New Bussa, Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry, 3(10), 34-43.
Jones ET, McLain RJ, Lynch K.A. (2004). The Relationship between Non timber Forest Product Management and Biodiversity in the United States. Institute for Culture and Ecology.
Kitessa, H., & Tsegaye, G. (2008). Woody species composition and structure of the Belete Forest, Jimma Zone, SW Ethiopia. Ethiopian journal of the Biological sciences, 7(1), 1-15.
Malleson, R., Asaha, S., Egot, M., Kshatriya, M., Marshall, E., Obeng-Okrah, K., & Sunderland, T. (2014). Non-timber forest products income from forest landscapes of Cameroon, Ghana and Nigeria–an incidental or integral contribution to sustaining rural livelihoods? International Forestry Review, 16(3), 261-277. https://doi.org/10.1505/146554814812572449
Melaku, E., Ewnetu, Z., & Teketay, D. (2014). Non-timber forest products and household incomes in Bonga forest area, southwestern Ethiopia. Journal of forestry research, 25(1), 215-223.
Meles, B., Bekele, T., & Tadese, S. (2016). Role of non-timber forest products to livelihoods of rural households: Setit Humera, Western Tigray, Ethiopia. wjpls, 2 (4), 33-48.
Msalilwa, U. (2013). Role of non-timber forest products in climate change adaptation by forest dependent communities in Kilolo District, Iringa, Tanzania (Doctoral dissertation, Sokoine University of Agriculture).
Mukul, S. A., Uddin, M. B., Manzoor Rashid, A. Z. M., & Fox, J. (2010). Integrating livelihoods and conservation in protected areas: understanding the role and stakeholder views on prospects for non-timber forest products, a Bangladesh case study. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 17(2), 180-188.
Niehof, A. (2004). The significance of diversification for rural livelihood systems. Food policy, 29(4), 321-338.
Olugbire, O. O., Ayomide, A. A., & Aremu, F. J. (2015). Socio-Economic Analysis of Non-Timber Forest Products Activities and Income among Rural Households in Nigeria. Fruit processing, 2176(16.03), 6-65.
Reshad, M., Mohammed, M., Mohammed, A., & Beyene, A. (2017). Socio-Economic Importance of Non-Timber Forest Products and Its Implication on Natural Forest Conservation: The Case of Jello-Muktar Forest, Southeastern Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 8, 17.
Ros-Tonen, MAF., Wiersum, K. (2005). The scope of improving rural livelihoods through non-timber forest products, An evolving research agenda. People, Trees and Livelihoods.15 (2), 129-148.
Schmitt, C. B., Denich, M., Demissew, S., Friis, I., & Boehmer, H. J. (2010). Floristic diversity in fragmented Afromontane rainforests: Altitudinal variation and conservation importance. Applied Vegetation Science, 13(3), 291-304.
Sjaastad, E., Angelsen, A., Vedeld, P., & Bojö, J. (2005). What is environmental income?. Ecological Economics, 55(1), 37-46.
Solomon. M. (2016). Biodiversity & Endangered Species Importance of Non-Timber Forest Production in Sustainable Forest Management and Its Implication on Carbon Storage and Biodiversity Conservation in Case of Ethiopia 4, 1–8.
Suleiman, M. S., Wasonga, V. O., Mbau, J. S., Suleiman, A., & Elhadi, Y. A. (2017). Non-timber forest products and their contribution to households income around Falgore Game Reserve in Kano, Nigeria. Ecological Processes, 6(1), 1-14.
Shemnga, T.A. (2015). Assessment of the contribution of non-timber forest products to household food security and income around Baga catchment forest in Lushoto district, Tanzania (Doctoral dissertation, Sokoine University of Agriculture).
Tambi, M.D. and Kengah, N.D. (2018). Contribution of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) to Socioeconomic Wellbeing in Rural Cameroon. Agriculture and Forestry Journal, 2(2), pp.65-80.
Timko, J. A., Waeber, P. O., & Kozak, R. A. (2010). The socio-economic contribution of non-timber forest products to rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa: knowledge gaps and new directions. International forestry review, 12(3), 284-294.
Vedeld, P., Angelsen, A., Bojö, J., Sjaastad, E., & Berg, G. K. (2007). Forest environmental incomes and the rural poor. Forest Policy and Economics, 9(7), 869-879.
Worku M. (2014). Traditional uses of non-timber forest products in southwest Ethiopia: Opportunities and challenges for sustainable forest management. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 1(1), Jimma, Ethiopia.
Yemane, T. (1967). Statistics: An introductory Analysis. 2nd Edition, New York, Haper and Row.
Copyright (c) 2022 Abera Adugna Bayesa, Diriba Abdeta Bushara
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.