Adoption and Implementation of Devolved Farm Forestry Extension Services from Kenya Forest Service to County Governments: Socio-Economic Wellbeing of Rural Communities and Experiences from Homabay County, Kenya

  • Akoth Lucy Ojijo University of Kabianga
  • Sirmah Peter Kipkosgei University of Kabianga
  • Matonyei Thomas Kibiwot University of Kabianga
Keywords: Farm Forestry, Devolution, Homabay County, Extension, Kenya
Share Article:


In Kenya, all forestry functions were National Government affairs until 2013 when farm forestry extension was devolved to the 47 Counties, Homabay County being one of them. However, the adoption and extent of implementation of the devolved farm forestry extension services are little known and its impact on rural livelihoods has not been effectively established as well as the implementation of the Transition Implementation Plan by the County Government of Homabay is not evident. Structured questionnaires were administered purposively to 399 respondents spread in eight Sub-Counties of Homabay to gather data on the extent of implementation of the devolved farm forestry extension services, to evaluate socio-economic effects of farm forestry extension services to rural communities and the extent of adoption of devolved farm forestry extension services. Results indicate the extent of adoption of farm forestry extension services is low with the farmers expressing that as much as it’s a devolved function, it is not an active process within the rural communities (82%). The key socio-economic factors that affect the adoption and implementation of devolved farm forestry are; farmers level of income for purchase of tree seeds (61%), market availability for tree seedlings (44%), land sizes and tenure systems (68%). The extent of implementation was influenced by County Government budget allocation and prioritization (67%), availability of qualified personnel (81%), government policies on interactions between the two levels of governments (49%) and obligation to the Transition Implementation Plan (89%). The results suggest that County Government needs to prioritize budget allocation and have adequate personnel as means to adequately implement the devolved functions and also to implement the Transition Implementation Plan as laid down by the Kenya Forest Service.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdalla, A. I. M. (2011). The Role of Forestry Extension in Raising Standard of Living and Alleviate Poverty. Case of Eloudaya Administrative Unit, Sudan. University of Khartoum.

Agrawal, A., Chhatre, A., & Hardin, R. (2008). Changing governance of the world’s forests. Science, 320(5882), 1460-1462.

Anderson, J. R., & Feder, G. (2004). Agricultural extension: Good intentions and hard realities. The World Bank Research Observer, 19(1), 41-60.

Bastakoti, R. R., & Davidsen, C. (2015). Nepal’s REDD+ readiness preparation and multi-stakeholder consultation challenges. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 13(1), 30-43.

Bitange, J., Sirmah, P., Matonyei, T. (2021). Conservation Activities of Women in Nyangores Forest Station, Mau Conservancy, Kenya. East African Journal of Forestry and Agroforestry, 3(1), 29-39

County Government of Homabay. (2018). First County Integrated Development Plan (CIDP) –County Government of Homabay 2018-2022. County Government of Homabay

Dahal, G. R., & Adhikari, K. P. (2008). Trends and impact of forest tenure reforms in Asia: cases from India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Nepal and the Philippines. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 7(1), 19-26.

Dang, T. K. P., Van Der Zouwen, M., & Arts, B. (2019). Challenges of forest governance: The case of forest rehabilitation in Vietnam. Public Organization Review, 19(4), 425-452.

Davidson, A. P. (2007). Participation, education, and pluralism: towards a new extension ethic. Development in Practice, 17(1), 39-50.

Davis, K. (2008). Extension in sub-Saharan Africa: Overview and assessment of past and current models and future prospects. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 15(3), 15-28.

Doss, C. R. (2006). Analyzing technology adoption using microstudies: limitations, challenges, and opportunities for improvement. Agricultural economics, 34(3), 207-219.

FAO. (2016). State of the world’s forests 2016. Forests and agriculture: Land-use challenges and opportunities. Rome: FAO.

Government of Kenya (GOK). (2011). Draft session paper on devolved government in Kenya: Developmental devolved government for effective and sustainable counties. Government Printers.

Government of Kenya (GOK). (2016). The Forest Conservation and Management Act (2016). Kenya Gazette Supplement No. 155 (Acts No. 34). Nairobi, Kenya: Government Printer.

Kenya Forest Service (KFS). (2015). Implementation of devolved forestry functions (Transition to Devolved Government Act No. 1 of 2012) Transition Implementation Plans 2015 - 2016. Nairobi, Kenya.

KNBS. (2019): Kenya National Population and housing census, Volume 1A. Population distribution by administrative units and sub-counties. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Ministry of state for planning, National Government and vision 2030.

Koppmair, S., Kassie, M., & Qaim, M. (2016). Farm input subsidies and the adoption of natural resource management technologies (No. 333-2016-14585). Selected paper prepared at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied economics association annual meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, July31-August 2.

Lasco, R.D., Habito, C. M. D., Delfino, R. J. P.,Pulhin, F. B. & Concepcion, R. N. (2011). Climate change adaptation for smallholder farmers in South Asia. World Agroforestry Centre, Philiphines.65p.

Mbuvi, M. T. E., Ndalilo, L. & Cheboiwo, J. (2018). Challenges to Actualization of Decentralization Forest Management Functions: Experiences and Lessons on Devolving Forestry Management Functions in Kenya. Public Policy and Administration Research, 8 (10), 84-92.

Mugenda, O., & Mugenda, A. (2003). Research methods: quantitative & qualitative approaches. Nairobi, KE: Acts Press.

Mwangi, M., & Kariuki, S. (2015). Factors determining adoption of new agricultural technology by smallholder farmers in developing countries. Journal of Economics and sustainable development, 6(5).

Okuthe, I. K. (2018). Determinant of the adoption of integrated natural resource management technology by small scale farmers in Ndhiwa division, Kenya. Maseno University.

Oloo, O. M., (2014). Devolving Corruption? Kenya’s Transition to Devolution, Experiences and Lessons from the decade of Constituency Development Fund in Kenya. Conference Proceedings of Workshop on Devolution and Local Development in Kenya (pp. 63-74). Nairobi, International Centre for Local Democracy (ICLD).

Rivera, W. & Alex, G. (Eds). (2004). Demand-Driven Approaches to Agriculture Extension: Case Studies of International Initiatives. Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper 10. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Ruifa, H. U., Zhijian, Y. A. N. G., Kelly, P., & Huang, J. (2009). Agricultural extension system reform and agent time allocation in China. China Economic Review, 20(2), 303-315.

Sanjay, S. (2017). Women’s Roles in Community Forestry Program: A Case of Panchakanya Community Forest User Group of Nuwakot District, Nepal. Masters dissertation. Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University.

Semana, A. (2004). Agricultural extension at Cross Roads: present dilemma and possible solutions for the future in Uganda. Kampala, Uganda.

Sigdel, B. R., Koirala, S., & Aryal, P. (2015). Corporate governance in Nepalese financial sector: does policy matter. Lalitpur: Nepal Administrative Staff College

Swanson, B. E. (2006). Extension strategies for poverty alleviation: lessons from China and India. Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 12(4), 285-299.

Teresia, M. I. (2014). Analysis of farmers’ awareness of agricultural extension devolution and preferences for participatory design of agricultural extension programs in Kenya. Master’s Thesis. Nairobi, Kenya: Nairobi University.

KFS. (2015). Implementation of Devolved Forestry Function (2015). Transition to Devolved Government Act No. 1 Of 2012): Transition Implementation Plan (TIPS) For Homabay County Fiscal Year 2015 -2016.

World Bank. (2014). Potential of agroforestry to contribute to poverty alleviation to economic growth and to protection of environmental services in the countries of the Southern and Eastern Africa regions. A discussion Paper. April 2014

31 January, 2022
How to Cite
Ojijo, A., Kipkosgei, S., & Kibiwot, M. (2022). Adoption and Implementation of Devolved Farm Forestry Extension Services from Kenya Forest Service to County Governments: Socio-Economic Wellbeing of Rural Communities and Experiences from Homabay County, Kenya. East African Journal of Forestry and Agroforestry, 5(1), 9-21.