Factors Influencing the Attitudes of Local Community towards Protected Areas, Case Study on Ambatara Protected Area Forest Conservation, Northwest Ethiopia

  • Haile Zerfu Munaw Ethiopian Forestry Development
Keywords: Protected Area, Attitudes of Local Community, Forest Conservation, Ambatara Protected Area, Local Community
Share Article:


Protected areas (PAs) are crucial for natural resources and biodiversity conservation. However, they also hurt local communities by limiting access to farmland, forest product resources, and imposing fees. In some cases, local communities may view PAs as a risk to their livelihood or appreciate benefits of having PAs at other times. Hence, improving the positive attitudes of the local community toward PAs is important for the success of PAs preservation. This paper examined factors influencing the attitudes of the local community towards protected areas, a Case Study on Ambatara Protected Area (APA) forest Conservation, Northwest Ethiopia. Data was collected through household surveys. Econometric model were used for further analysis. The result identified influential factors and revealed that higher levels of age, education, family size, farmland size, livestock size, benefits, and awareness were all significantly associated with a more positive attitude of the local community towards PAs but having severe problems with a negative attitude. These were the key factors influencing the attitudes of the local community and should be a consideration when designing conservation initiatives and policy decisions. In general, most respondents had a positive attitude(supportive) towards PA and believed the conservation of APA is essential for them. However, they had some concerns about the management and lack of access to appropriate resources; this needs to be addressed to ensure their long-term sustainability. This study concludes that understanding the attitudes of local communities toward protected areas is essential to provide a successful conservation strategy and tangible benefits to local communities and PAs. These will help to ensure and preserve PAs for generations to come.


Download data is not yet available.


Allendorf, T., Swe, K. K., Oo, T., Htut, Y., Aung, M., Allendorf, K., Hayek, L.-A., Leimgruber, P., & Wemmer, C. (2006). Community attitudes toward three protected areas in Upper Myanmar (Burma). Atuo, Fidelis Akunke, 33(4), 344-352.

Allendorf, T. D. (2007). Residents’ attitudes toward three protected areas in southwestern Nepal. Silori, Chandra Shekhar, 16(7), 2087-2102.

Allendorf, T. D. (2010). A framework for the park–people relationship: Insights from protected areas in Nepal and Myanmar. Allendorf, Teri D, 17(5), 417-422.

Anthony, B. (2007). The dual nature of parks: attitudes of neighbouring communities towards Kruger National Park, South Africa. Atuo, Fidelis Akunke, 34(3), 236-245.

Ashenafi, Z. T., & Leader-Williams, N. (2005). Indigenous common property resource management in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Ashenafi, Zelealem Tefera, 33(4), 539-563.

Atuo, F. A., Fu, J., O’Connell, T. J., Agida, J. A., & Agaldo, J. A. (2020). Coupling law enforcement and community-based regulations in support of compliance with biodiversity conservation regulations. Atuo, Fidelis Akunke, 47(2), 104-112.

Baral, N., & Heinen, J. T. (2007). Resources use, conservation attitudes, management intervention and park-people relations in the Western Terai landscape of Nepal. Atuo, Fidelis Akunke, 34(1), 64-72.

Bennett, N. J. (2016). Using perceptions as evidence to improve conservation and environmental management. Conservation Biology, 30(3), 582-592.

Bragagnolo, C., Malhado, A. C., Jepson, P., & Ladle, R. J. (2016). Modelling local attitudes to protected areas in developing countries. Bragagnolo, Chiara, 14(3), 163-182.

Chevallier, R., & Milburn, R. (2015). Increasing the economic value and contribution of protected areas in Africa.

Coulibaly-Lingani, P., Tigabu, M., Savadogo, P., Oden, P.-C., & Ouadba, J.-M. (2009). Determinants of access to forest products in southern Burkina Faso. Coulibaly-Lingani, Pascaline, 11(7), 516-524.

Fiallo, E. A., & Jacobson, S. K. (1995). Local communities and protected areas: attitudes of rural residents towards conservation and Machalilla National Park, Ecuador. Atuo, Fidelis Akunke, 22(3), 241-249.

George, G., Kotha, R., Parikh, P., Alnuaimi, T., & Bahaj, A. S. (2016). Social structure, reasonable gain, and entrepreneurship in Africa. George, Gerard, 37(6), 1118-1131.

Glikman, J. A., & Vaske, J. J. (2012). Alistair J. Bath, Paolo Ciucci & Luigi Boitani. Glikman, Jenny Anne, 58, 295-302.

Gray, C. L., Hill, S. L., Newbold, T., Hudson, L. N., Börger, L., Contu, S., Hoskins, A. J., Ferrier, S., Purvis, A., & Scharlemann, J. P. (2016). Local biodiversity is higher inside than outside terrestrial protected areas worldwide. Gray, Claudia L, 7(1), 1-7.

Greene, W. H. (2003). Econometric Analysis. Volume 97.

Harrison, X. A., Donaldson, L., Correa-Cano, M. E., Evans, J., Fisher, D. N., Goodwin, C. E., Robinson, B. S., Hodgson, D. J., & Inger, R. (2018). A brief introduction to mixed effects modelling and multi-model inference in ecology. Harrison, Xavier A, 6, e4794.

Heinen, J. T., & Shrivastava, R. J. (2009). An analysis of conservation attitudes and awareness around Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India: implications for conservation and development. Heinen, Joel T, 30(6), 261-274.

Israel, G. D. (2012). Determining Sample Size. Agricultural Education and Communication Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Science and Education. An Open Access and Academic Publisher.

Mogende, E., & Kolawole, O. (2016). Dynamics of local governance in natural resource conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Natural Resources Forum,

Mulualem, G., & Tesfahunegny, W. (2016). Review of key wildlife threats factors from literature and observation perspectives: A way forward for sustainable wildlife genetic resource conservation practices in Ethiopia. The Journal of Zoology Studies, 3(5), 01-12.

Oldekop, J. A., Holmes, G., Harris, W. E., & Evans, K. L. (2016). A global assessment of the social and conservation outcomes of protected areas. Conservation Biology, 30(1), 133-141.

Ormsby, A., & Kaplin, B. A. (2005). A framework for understanding community resident perceptions of Masoala National Park, Madagascar. Atuo, Fidelis Akunke, 32(2), 156-164.

Rohini, C., Aravindan, T., Das, K. A., & Vinayan, P. (2018). People’ s attitude towards wild elephants, forest conservation and Human-Elephant conflict in Nilambur, southern Western Ghats of Kerala, India. Rohini, CK, 10(6), 11710-11716.

Schmitt, J. A. (2010). Improving conservation efforts in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania: an examination of knowledge, benefits, costs, and attitudes. University of Minnesota.

Schulze, K., Knights, K., Coad, L., Geldmann, J., Leverington, F., Eassom, A., Marr, M., Butchart, S. H., Hockings, M., & Burgess, N. D. (2018). An assessment of threats to terrestrial protected areas. Schulze, Katharina, 11(3), e12435.

Shibia, M. G. (2010). Determinants of attitudes and perceptions on resource use and management of Marsabit National Reserve, Kenya. Shibia, Mohamed G, 30(1), 55-62.

Tabchnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2006). Using multivariate statistics. Tabchnick, Barbara G.

Tessema, M. E., Lilieholm, R. J., Ashenafi, Z. T., & Leader-Williams, N. (2010). Community attitudes toward wildlife and protected areas in Ethiopia. Society and natural resources, 23(6), 489-506.

Thondhlana, G., Cundill, G., & Kepe, T. (2016). Co-management, land rights, and conflicts around South Africa’s Silaka Nature Reserve. Thondhlana, Gladman, 29(4), 403-417.

Torres-Reyna, O. (2014). Logit, Probit and Multinomial models in R. Volume 3.5.

Watson, R., Baste, I., Larigauderie, A., Leadley, P., Pascual, U., Baptiste, B., Demissew, S., Dziba, L., Erpul, G., & Fazel, A. (2019). Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Watson, Robert, 22-47.

Western, D., Waithaka, J., & Kamanga, J. (2015). Finding space for wildlife beyond national parks and reducing conflict through community-based conservation: the Kenya experience. Western, David, 21(1), 51-62.

Xu, J., Chen, L., Lu, Y., & Fu, B. (2006). Local people's perceptions as decision support for protected area management in Wolong Biosphere Reserve, China. Xu, Jianying, 78(4), 362-372.

14 August, 2023
How to Cite
Munaw, H. (2023). Factors Influencing the Attitudes of Local Community towards Protected Areas, Case Study on Ambatara Protected Area Forest Conservation, Northwest Ethiopia. East African Journal of Forestry and Agroforestry, 6(1), 238-253. https://doi.org/10.37284/eajfa.6.1.1372