Traditional Uses and Ex-Situ Conservation of Warburgia ugandensis around Katimok Forest Reserve, Kenya
Different tree species provide a wide range of local livelihood options, including firewood, timber, and medicinal uses, among others. Specifically, traditional medicine significantly contributes to primary health care with a sizable number of people heavily depending on traditional medicine, while many others have used medicinal plants at one time or another. For instance, Warburgia ugandensis is mainly utilised for its medicinal value in many rural areas. Furthermore, people living in rural areas depend on the herbal medical system due to their firm beliefs and limited access to allopathic medicine. Traditionally, indigenous plant species are used to treat diseases that affect both humans and livestock. Consequently, the wide use of medicinal plants such as Warburgia ugandensis has increased commercial collection, unregulated trade, and habitat loss, with the imminent danger of the plant species being threatened. To further compound the problem, few or no medicinal plant species are cultivated on farms. Therefore, the study aimed to analyse traditional uses and examine ex-situ conservation measures of Warburgia ugandensis around Katimok Forest Reserve in Baringo County, Kenya. The primary data was collected using household survey questionnaires and key informant interviews. The key informant interviews and household surveys were done by randomly sampling 345 respondents. One-way ANOVA and SPSS version 28.0.1 were used to analyse the data. Tables, charts and a histogram were used to present data in frequencies and percentages. All the statistics were considered at 95% confidence levels. The results revealed a significant difference in existing ex-situ conservation measures (F (2,9) =63.55, P-Value=4.92) and traditional uses of Warburgia ugandensis in the study blocks around Katimok Forest Reserve (F (3,12) = 109.66, P-Value=5.49). Medicinal use is the most predominant among the other uses. Additionally, there are limited ex-situ conservation measures for important plant species. Therefore, there is an immediate need to promote the ex-situ conservation of invaluable medicinal plant species to enhance the sustainability of traditional uses.
Abuto, J., Muchugi, A., & Machocho, A. (2018). Diversity in the Phytochemical Profiles of Warburgia ugandensis Sprague from Different Populations across the Kenyan Rift Valley Diversity in the Phytochemical Profiles of Warburgia ugandensis Sprague from Different Populations across the Kenyan Rift Vall. 3(May).
Brown, D., Stephens, E., Ouma, J., Murithi, F., & Barrett, C. B. (2006). Livelihood strategies in the rural Kenyan highlands. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 1(1), 21– 36. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/57019/2/0101 Barrett - FINAL & Fr abstract 5 Mar.pdf%5Cnhttp://econpapers.repec.org/article/agsafjare/57019.htm
Chen, S. L., Yu, H., Luo, H. M., Wu, Q., Li, C. F., & Steinmetz, A. (2016). Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants: Problems, progress, and prospects. Chinese Medicine (United Kingdom), 11(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13020-016-0108-7
Delvaux, C., Sinsin, B., Darchambeau, F., & Van Damme, P. (2009). Recovery from bark harvesting of 12 medicinal tree species in Benin, West Africa. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46(3), 703– 712. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01639.x
Dokata, D. I., Mburu, B. K., Macharia, G. M., Choge, S. K., Ojunga, S. O., & Kaudo, B. O. (2023). Distribution, Conservation Status and Effects of Threats on Relative Abundance of Warburgia ugandensis Tree Species. A Case Study of Katimok Forest Reserve, Kenya. East African Journal of Forestry and Agroforestry, 6(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.37284/eajfa.6.1.1044
Ednah, C. K., Jackson, J. K., & Charles, W. R. (2018). Analysis of spatial variability in rainfall trends in Baringo County, Kenya. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12(9), 296–304. https://doi.org/10.5897/ajest2016.2214
Gakuya, D. W., Okumu, M. O., Kiama, S. G., Mbaria, J. M., Gathumbi, P. K., Mathiu, P. M., & Nguta, J. M. (2020). Traditional medicine in Kenya: Past and current status, challenges, and the way forward. Scientific African, 8, e00360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00360
Harvey-Brown, Y., & Shaw, K. (2020). Planning Conservation Action for Kenya’s Threatened Trees.
Gafna, D., Dolos, K., O Mahiri, I., Mahiri, J. G., & Obando, J. A. (2017). Diversity of Medicinal Plants and Anthropogenic Threats in the Samburu Central Sub-County of Kenya. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 14(5), 72– 79. https://doi.org/10.21010/ajtcam.v14i5.10
Jamil, A., Zubair, M., Manzoor, S. A., Muhammad, M. W., Yasin, G., Rahman, S. U., Alzain, M. N., Alqarawi, A. A., & Abd_Allah, E. F. (2022). Impact of Human Settlements on Diversity of Range Vegetation. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(1), 1– 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010519
Kiyingi, I., Edriss, A., Phiri, M., Buyinza, M., & Agaba, H. (2016). The Impact of Farm Forestry on Poverty alleviation and Food Security in Uganda. Journal of Sustainable Development, 9(1), 150. https://doi.org/10.5539/jsd.v9n1p150
Kumar, P. (2006). The economics of medicinal plants: Are high commercial values enough to ensure biodiversity conservation? In Conserving Medicinal Species: Securing a healthy future.
Mahomoodally, M. F. (2013). Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Traditional Medicines in Africa: An Appraisal of Ten Potent African Medicinal Plants. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013, 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/617459
Maobe, M. A. G., Gitu, L., Gatebe, E., & Rotich, H. (2013). Physical Evaluation of Selected Eight Medicinal Herbs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes, Malaria and Pneum Fire Preparedness View Project Waste water treatment View project. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.ejas.2013.5.2.65134
Marquard, H. (2015). Muliru Farmers: Cultivating traditional medicinal plants to protect the last Kenyan rainforest Muliru Farmers Cultivating traditional medicinal plants to protect the last Kenyan rainforest 2010 SEED Winner Founding Partners 2 Seed Case Study: Muliru Farmers Seed Case Studies Series Demonstrating Sustainable Development on the Ground Through Locally-driven Eco-entrepreneurship. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.2756.6560
Marrelli, M. (2021). Medicinal plants. In Plants (Vol. 10, Issue 7). MDPI. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071355
Mbuni, Y. M., Wang, S., Mwangi, B. N., & Mbari, N. J. (2020). Western Kenya. Plants, 9(331), 1–16.
Muchugi, A., Kindt, R., Muluvi, G. M., Muge, E., Kipruto, H., & Jamnadass, R. H. (2012a). Genetic Variation of Kenyan Populations of Warburgia ugandensis, an Important East African Highlands Medicinal Tree Species. Journal of Life Sciences, 4(2), 97–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/09751270.2012.11885201
Muchugi, A., Kindt, R., Muluvi, G. M., Muge, E., Kipruto, H., & Jamnadass, R. H. (2012b). Genetic Variation of Kenyan Populations of Warburgia ugandensis, an Important East African Highlands Medicinal Tree Species. Journal of Life Sciences, 4(2), 97–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/09751270.2012.11885201
Nankaya, J., Gichuki, N., Lukhoba, C., & Balslev, H. (2021). Prioritisation of Loita Maasai medicinal plants for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 30(3), 761–780. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-021-02116-8
Nieuwenhuis, M., & O’Connor, N. (2000). Challenges and opportunities for small-scale tree nurseries in the East African highlands. Unasylva, 51(203), 56–60.
Otieno, N. E., & Analo, C. (2012). Local indigenous knowledge about some medicinal plants in and around Kakamega forest in western Kenya. F1000Research, 1, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.1-40.v2
Painuli, S., Semwal, P., Cruz-Martins, N., & Bachheti, R. K. (2021). Medicinal Plants of Himalayan Forests. In Non-Timber Forest Products (pp. 175–212). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-73077-2_8
Rutto, G. C., & Odhiambo, K. O. (2017). Socio-Economic Importance of Tree Nurseries in Eldoret Municipality, Uasin Gishu County (Kenya). 2017 AER Journal, 2(2), 146–154. http://www.aerjournal.info
Šatović, Z., Carović-Stanko, K., Grdiša, M., Jug-Dujaković, M., Kolak, I., & Liber, Z. (2012). Conservation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Croatia. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, 122, 261–269. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2953-7_24
Senkoro, A. M., Talhinhas, P., Simões, F., Batista-Santos, P., Shackleton, C. M., Voeks, R. A., Marques, I., & Ribeiro-Barros, A. I. (2020). The genetic legacy of fragmentation and overexploitation in the threatened medicinal African pepper-bark tree, Warburgia salutaris. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76654-6
Sofi, I. I., Verma, S., Ganie, A. H., Sharma, N., & Shah, M. A. (2022). Threat status of three important medicinal Himalayan plant species and conservation implications. Nature Conservation Research, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.24189/ncr.2022.006
Tomlinson, T. R., & Akerele, O. (2015). Medicinal plants: Their role in health and biodiversity. In Medicinal Plants: Their Role in Health and Biodiversity.
Uakarn, C. (2021). Sample size estimation using Yamane and Cochran and Krejcie and Morgan and Green formulas and Cohen statistical power analysis by G*power and comparisons. Apheit International Journal, 10(2), 76–88.
Volume I: Population By County And Sub-County Counting Our People for Sustainable Development and Devolution of Services REPUBLIC OF KENYA. (2019).
Yismaw, M. T., & Tadesse, D. B. (2018). The Contribution of Agro forestry System to Tree Biodiversity Conservation and Rural Livelihood: The Case of Lay Armachiho District, Gondar, Ethiopia. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 6(5), 129–139. https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsrm/v6i5.ah02
Zinngrebe, Y., Vidal, A., Gassner, A., Kumar, C., & Dobie, P. (2020). Trees on Farms as a Nature-based Solution for Biodiversity Conservation in Agricultural Landscapes. ICRAF Policy Brief, 2019(47). https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.14852.07045
Copyright (c) 2023 Dub Isacko Dokata, Benson Kamau Mburu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.