Assessing the Influence of Policy and Institutional Frameworks on the Effectiveness of Environmental Programmes in Selected Secondary Schools in Murang’a County, Kenya

  • Josphat M. Gikonyo University of Nairobi
  • Stephen O. Anyango University of Nairobi
  • Jones F. Agwata University of Nairobi
Keywords: Environmental Education, Experiential Environmental Programmes, Characteristics of Environmental Programmes, Environmental Policy, Institutional Frameworks
Share Article:


Environmental degradation is a major challenge which requires appropriate strategies to reverse the situation. One of such strategies is experiential environmental education in high schools which give students an opportunity to participate in various environmental activities which in turn changes their change of attitudes and conservation behaviour. In this study, the influence of such experiential programmes was assessed with regards to their influence on pro-environmental attitudes and behaviour of high school students in Murang’a County, Kenya. The study also assessed the institutional and policy frameworks on which the programmes are anchored using secondary data mainly through literature review of policy documents. For the effectiveness of environmental programmes in school, nine hundred and sixty-one (961) students from nineteen (19) high schools from two sub-counties in the County were sampled in the study. The Likert type questionnaire and the 2-MEV Scale were used to collect the required data. The t-test statistic was applied to determine any differences between the variables. Results showed significant differences in pro-environmental attitudes and behaviour with regard to solid waste management, water resources management, natural resources management between members of Environmental Clubs and non-members. It is concluded that the experiential environmental programmes improve the student’s pro-environmental attitudes and behaviour and hence environmental management within the schools, they lack the requisite institutional and policy framework to support it enhanced environmental literacy. It is recommended that appropriate policies to enhance the implementation of school experiential environmental programmes be formulated to ensure capacity building of the learners to effectively manage environmental issues in the schools and their community.


Download data is not yet available.


Anbalagan, G., & Anbalagan, K. (2015). A Study on Environmental Awareness and Related Practices among the High School Students at Madurai District, Tamil Nadu. Indian Streams Research Journal [Online], 5(9), 1-9.

Anderson, C. L., Miller, B. G., Eitel, K. B., Veletsianos, G., Eitel, J. U., & Hougham, R. J. (2015). Exploring Techniques for Integrating Mobile Technology into Field-Based Environmental Education. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 19(6), n6.

Armitage, D., Mbatha, P., Muhl, E. K., Rice, W., & Sowman, M. (2020). Governance principles for community‐centered conservation in the post‐2020 global biodiversity framework. Conservation Science and Practice, 2(2), e160.

Batanero, J. M., Reyes, M. M., & Piñero, R. (2018). Design, Application and Evaluation of a Technological Instrument about Environmental Education. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education E-Issn, 13(7), 1306-3065.

Chen, F. Y., Hsu, P. Y., & Lin, T. W. (2011). Air Travelers' environmental consciousness: A preliminary investigation in Taiwan. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(12), 78.

Chawla, L., & Cushing, D. F. (2007). Education for strategic environmental behavior. Environmental education research, 13(4), 437-452.

Duerden, M. D., Witt, P. A., & Harrist, C. J. (2013). The impact of parental involvement on a structured youth program experience: A qualitative inquiry. Journal of Youth Development, 8(3), 106-123.

Dwyer, W.O., Leeming, F. C., Cobern, M. K., Porter, B. E., & Jackson, J. M. (1993). Critical review of behavioral interventions to preserve the environment: Research since 1980. Environment and behavior, 25(5), 275-321..

Erdogan, M. (2011). The Effects of Ecology-Based Summer Nature Education Program on Primary School Students' Environmental Knowledge, Environmental Affect and Responsible Environmental Behavior. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 11(4), 2233-2237.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (Eds.). (2008). Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. John Wiley & Sons.

Government of Kenya (GoK). (2007). VISION 2030 – Transforming National Development; First Medium-Term Plan 2008-2012, Nairobi: Government Printers.

Government of Kenya (GoK). (2008). ): Education for Sustainable Development; Implementation Strategy. National Environment Management Authority, Nairobi, Kenya.

Government of Kenya (GoK). (2014). National Education for Sustainable Development Policy Nairobi: Government Printers.

Government of Kenya (GoK). (2017). Education for Sustainable Development Policy for the Education Sector. Nairobi: Retrieved from

Government of Kenya (GoK). (2019). A Policy Framework for Reforming Education and Training for Sustainable Development in Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printers.

Guion, L. A., & Free, T. R. (2010). A conceptual framework for infusing behavior change theories into program design, delivery and evaluation: A financial education example. In The Forum for Family and Consumer Issues (Vol. 15, No. 1).

Gündüz, Ş. (2017). A research about attitudes and behaviours of university students with having different cultures towards the environment through sustainable development. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(6), 1881-1892.

Habibie, A. (2020). The Effect of Personality over Student Insights on the Environment. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 7(2), 74-81.

Hassan, A., Rahman, N. A., & Abdullah, S. I. S. S. (2011). The level of environmental knowledge, awareness, attitudes and practices among UKM students. University Kebangsaan, Malaysia, 13, 5-8.

Hemayatkhah, M., Rahmanian, V., & Mansoorian, E. (2018). Evaluating the level of environmental behaviors among students at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 2016-2017. Journal of Environmental Health and Sustainable Development, 3(3), 567-577.

Hidayah, N, & Agustin, R. R. (2017). Assessing High School Students’ Pro-Environmental Behaviour. Journal of Physica: Conference series. Ser. 895 012002

Hines ayah, N, & Agustin, R. R. (2017). Assessing High School Students’ Pro-Environmental Behaviour. Journal of Physica: Conference series. Ser. 895 012002

Hungerford, H. R., & Volk, T. L. (1990). Changing learner behavior through environmental education. The journal of environmental education, 21(3), 8-21.

Joldersma, C. W. (2017). Earth Ethics for Education. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education.

Kaur, M. (2020). Maninder. Impact of Environmental Education on Environment Awareness among School Students: A Case Study of District Amritsar (Punjab). Studies in Indian Place Names (UGC Care Journal), 40(40). ISSN: 2394-3114.

Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behaviour? Environmental education research, 8(3), 239-260.

Kopnina, H. (2012). Education for sustainable development (ESD): the turn away from ‘environment’in environmental education? Environmental Education Research, 18(5), 699-717.

Korkmaz, M. (2018). Public awareness and perceptions of climate change: Differences in concern about climate change in the West Mediterranean region of Turkey. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 16(4), 4039-4050.

Loubser, C. P. (2015). Students’ views about the inclusion of environmental education and education for sustainability in teacher education courses. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 8(1), 93-100.

Mutisya, S. M., Kipgetich, K. E., & Rono, K. J. (2013). Positive attitude towards environmental conservation: The role of primary education in Kenya.

Pianosi, M. (2017). Can environmental citizenship be enhanced through social media? A case study of engagement in a UK University.

Sarac, E., & Kan, A. (2015). The validity and reliability analysis of the attitude scale on the environmental issues for the prospective teachers. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 4(2), 142-150.

Sharma, P. K. (2016). Assessment of Environmental Literacy of School Students. Calorx Teachers’ University.

Singh, R. (2015). Environmental awareness among undergraduate students in relation to their stream of study and area of residence. Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies (SJIF), 5, 2830-2845.

Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2009). Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of environmental psychology, 29(3), 309-317.

Stern, P.C & Oskamp S. (1999). Managing scarce environmental resources. In Handbook of Environmental Psychology;Stokols, D., Altman, Y.I., Eds.;Wiley and Sons: New York, NY, USA, 1999; Volumen 2, pp. 1043–1088.

Taj, H. (2001). Manual for Environment Awareness scale, Department of education. Bangalore University.

UNDP. (2015). The Sustainable Development Goals. https;//

UNESCO. (2015). World Education Forum: Incheon Declaration. Education 2030: Towards Inclusive and Equitable Quality Education and Lifelong Learning for All.

UNESCO. (2017). One planet, one ocean. (accessed September 8, 2017).

Zelenika, I., Moreau, T., Lane, O., & Zhao, J. (2018). Sustainability education in a botanical garden promotes environmental knowledge, attitudes and willingness to act. Environmental education research, 24(11), 1581-1596.

5 August, 2022
How to Cite
Gikonyo, J., Anyango, S., & Agwata, J. (2022). Assessing the Influence of Policy and Institutional Frameworks on the Effectiveness of Environmental Programmes in Selected Secondary Schools in Murang’a County, Kenya. East African Journal of Environment and Natural Resources, 5(1), 218-230.