Diversity at Landscape Level to Increase Resilience. A Review

  • Benson Turyasingura Kabale University
  • Majaliwa Mwanjalolo, PhD Makerere University
  • Natal Ayiga Kabale University
Keywords: Diversity, Resilience, Landscape, Biodiversity, Environment
Share Article:


Tree species increases the number of ecological niches and associated species such as understory plants and animals hence, increased landscape ecosystem diversity. Rapid environmental and economic changes are posing serious dangers to ecosystems and economic systems around the world. This has resulted in the extinction of species, droughts, and price fluctuations in agricultural products. The aim of this review is to document landscape diversity and ecosystem resilience as a tool for natural resources management. The species from one ecosystem's functional group may temporarily support a functional group in another ecosystem, significant variety can help to maintain ecological stability. Hence, building on these insights, diversity at landscape level is paramount to promoting resilient livelihoods as a means of improving the health and functioning of socio-ecological systems, as well as a mechanism for achieving food security. The study concludes that there should be involving many actors in a landscape management aspect to stimulate knowledge exchange and training


Download data is not yet available.


Bókony, V., Üveges, B., Ujhegyi, N., Verebélyi, V., Nemesházi, E., Csíkvári, O., & Hettyey, A. (2018). Endocrine disruptors in breeding ponds and reproductive health of toads in agricultural, urban and natural landscapes. Science of the Total Environment, 634, 1335–1345.

Briassoulis, H. (2019). Combating land degradation and desertification: The land-use planning quandary. Land, 8(2), 27.

Cadman, M., Petersen, C., Driver, A., Sekhran, N., Maze, K., & Munzhedzi, S. (2010). Biodiversity for development: South Africa’s landscape approach to conserving biodiversity and promoting ecosystem resilience. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Caniglia, B. S., & Mayer, B. (2021). Socio-Ecological Systems. In Handbook of Environmental Sociology (pp. 517–536). Springer.

Carr, E. R. (2019). Properties and projects: Reconciling resilience and transformation for adaptation and development. World Development, 122, 70–84.

Du Toit, M. J., Cilliers, S. S., Dallimer, M., Goddard, M., Guenat, S., & Cornelius, S. F. (2018). Urban green infrastructure and ecosystem services in sub-Saharan Africa. Landscape and Urban Planning, 180, 249–261.

Elmqvist, T., Andersson, E., Frantzeskaki, N., McPhearson, T., Olsson, P., Gaffney, O., Takeuchi, K., & Folke, C. (2019). Sustainability and resilience for transformation in the urban century. Nature Sustainability, 2(4), 267–273.

Farida, A., Ekadinata, A., Rahmanulloh, A., Widayati, A., Perdana, A., Leimona, B., Lusiana, B., Verbist, B., Marohn, C., & Viet Bach, D. (2013). Negotiation-support toolkit for learning landscapes (Issue 333.7317 F224).: ICRAF.

Friedman, W. R., Halpern, B. S., McLeod, E., Beck, M. W., Duarte, C. M., Kappel, C. V, Levine, A., Sluka, R. D., Adler, S., & O’Hara, C. C. (2020). Research priorities for achieving healthy marine ecosystems and human communities in a changing climate. Frontiers in Marine Science, 7, 5.

Ghazinoory, S., Phillips, F., Afshari-Mofrad, M., & Bigdelou, N. (2021). Innovation lives in ecotones, not ecosystems. Journal of Business Research, 135, 572–580.

Gitz, V., & Meybeck, A. (2012). Risks, vulnerabilities and resilience in a context of climate change. Building Resilience for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Agriculture Sector, 23, 19.

Hood, G. A., McIntosh, A., & Hvenegaard, G. T. (2021). Ecological Compromise: Can Alternative Beaver Management Maintain Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Biodiversity? Wetlands, 41(8), 1–12.

Jenkins, R. L. M., Warren, R. F., & Price, J. T. (2021). Addressing risks to biodiversity arising from a changing climate: The need for ecosystem restoration in the Tana River Basin, Kenya. Plos One, 16(7), e0254879.

Jordan, J. C. (2015). Swimming alone? The role of social capital in enhancing local resilience to climate stress: a case study from Bangladesh. Climate and Development, 7(2), 110–123.

Knickel, K., Redman, M., Darnhofer, I., Ashkenazy, A., Chebach, T. C., Šūmane, S., Tisenkopfs, T., Zemeckis, R., Atkociuniene, V., & Rivera, M. (2018). Between aspirations and reality: Making farming, food systems and rural areas more resilient, sustainable and equitable. Journal of Rural Studies, 59, 197–210.

Larjavaara, M. (2008). A review on benefits and disadvantages of tree diversity. The Open Forest Science Journal, 1(1).

Liu, F., Liu, H., Xu, C., Zhu, X., He, W., & Qi, Y. (2021). Remotely sensed birch forest resilience against climate change in the northern China forest-steppe ecotone. Ecological Indicators, 125, 107526.

Liu, J., Wilson, M., Hu, G., Liu, J., Wu, J., & Yu, M. (2018). How does habitat fragmentation affect the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning relationship? Landscape Ecology, 33(3), 341–352.

Martin, E. A., Feit, B., Requier, F., Friberg, H., & Jonsson, M. (2019). Assessing the resilience of biodiversity- driven functions in agroecosystems under environmental change. Advances in Ecological Research, 60, 59–123.

Nigussie, Z., Tsunekawa, A., Haregeweyn, N., Tsubo, M., Adgo, E., Ayalew, Z., & Abele, S. (2021). The impacts of Acacia decurrens plantations on livelihoods in rural Ethiopia. Land Use Policy, 100, 104928.

Oldfather, M. F., Kling, M. M., Sheth, S. N., Emery, N. C., & Ackerly, D. D. (2020). Range edges in heterogeneous landscapes: Integrating geographic scale and climate complexity into range dynamics. Global Change Biology, 26(3), 1055–1067.

Po, J. Y. T., & Hickey, G. M. (2018). Local institutions and smallholder women’s access to land resources in semi-arid Kenya. Land Use Policy, 76, 252–263.

Powell, J. R., & Rillig, M. C. (2018). Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and ecosystem function. New Phytologist, 220(4), 1059–1075.

Rolls, R. J., Heino, J., Ryder, D. S., Chessman, B. C., Growns, I. O., Thompson, R. M., & Gido, K. B. (2018). Scaling biodiversity responses to hydrological regimes. Biological Reviews, 93(2), 971–995.

Sayol, F., Cooke, R. S. C., Pigot, A. L., Blackburn, T. M., Tobias, J. A., Steinbauer, M. J., Antonelli, A., & Faurby, S. (2021). Loss of functional diversity through anthropogenic extinctions of island birds is not offset by biotic invasions. Science Advances, 7(46), eabj5790.

Scherr, S. J., Shames, S., & Friedman, R. (2013). Defining integrated landscape management for policy makers. Eco Agriculture Policy Focus, 10, 1–6.

Schippers, P., van der Heide, C. M., Koelewijn, H. P., Schouten, M. A. H., Smulders, R. M. J. M., Cobben, M. M. P., Sterk, M., Vos, C. C., & Verboom, J. (2015). Landscape diversity enhances the resilience of populations, ecosystems and local economy in rural areas. Landscape Ecology, 30(2), 193–202.

Schmidt, C. (2022). Factors Influencing Landscape Resilience. In Landscape Resilience (pp. 97–138). Springer.

Seddon, N., Daniels, E., Davis, R., Harris, R., Hou-Jones, X., Huq, S., Kapos, V., Mace, G. M., Rizvi, A. R., & Reid, H. (2018). Global recognition that ecosystems are key to human resilience in a warming world.

Shammin, M. R., Enamul Haque, A. K., & Faisal, I. M. (2022). A framework for climate resilient community-based adaptation. In Climate Change and Community Resilience (pp. 11–30). Springer, Singapore.

Siebert, F., & Dreber, N. (2019). Forb ecology research in dry African savannas: Knowledge, gaps, and future perspectives. Ecology and Evolution, 9(13), 7875–7891.

Simensen, T., Halvorsen, R., & Erikstad, L. (2018). Methods for landscape characterisation and mapping: A systematic review. Land Use Policy, 75, 557–569.

Sinclair, F., Wezel, A., Mbow, C., Chomba, S., Robiglio, V., & Harrison, R. (2019). The contribution of agroecological approaches to realizing climate-resilient agriculture. GCA: Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Stanišić, M., Lovrić, M., Nedeljković, J., Nonić, D., & Pezdevšek Malovrh, Š. (2021). Climate Change Governance in Forestry and Nature Conservation in Selected Forest Regions in Serbia: Stakeholders Classification and Collaboration. Forests, 12(6), 709.

Tanner, T., Lewis, D., Wrathall, D., Bronen, R., Cradock-Henry, N., Huq, S., Lawless, C., Nawrotzki, R., Prasad, V., & Rahman, M. A. (2015). Livelihood resilience in the face of climate change. Nature Climate Change, 5(1), 23–26.

Wang, T., Jin, H., Fan, Y., Obembe, O., & Li, D. (2021). Farmers’ adoption and perceived benefits of diversified crop rotations in the margins of US Corn Belt. Journal of Environmental Management, 293, 112903.

Zymaroieva, A., Zhukov, O., Fedoniuk, T., Pinkina, T., & Hurelia, V. (2021). The relationship between landscape diversity and crops productivity: Landscape scale study. Journal of Landscape Ecology, 14(1), 39–58.

23 June, 2022
How to Cite
Turyasingura, B., Mwanjalolo, M., & Ayiga, N. (2022). Diversity at Landscape Level to Increase Resilience. A Review. East African Journal of Environment and Natural Resources, 5(1), 174-181. https://doi.org/10.37284/eajenr.5.1.723