Evaluation of two Non-Edible, Wild Indigenous Botswana Crops (Croton megalobotrys (Motsebi/Letsebi/Moshoole) and Ricinus communis (Mokhure)) as Potential Feedstocks for Petroleum and Cosmetic Industries
Croton megalobotrys and Ricinus cummunis plants produce high-quality non-edible seed oils at relatively high quantities of 39.65 ± 0.06 % w/w to 53.74 ± 0.04 % w/w. The Iodine values of 85.97 ± 1.62 g I2/100 g to 96.51 ± 1.31 g I2/100 g; the low acid values of 0.96 ± 0.05 mg KOH/g to 5.31 ± 0.76 mg KOH/g; and high saponification values of 139.65 ± 1.06 mg KOH/g to 153.01 ± 1.67 mg KOH/g show that these seed oils can be useful feedstocks in the petroleum, soap, and cosmetics industries. GC-MS results revealed that R. cummunis seed oil is made up of eight (8) fatty acids with the bulk being ricinoleic acid at 81.51 %. Ricinoleic acid is the main fatty acid used in oleochemical industries. C. megalobotrys seed oil is made up of five (5) fatty acids, the most abundant being Linoleic acid which makes up 58.01 % of the seed oil. The other two significant fatty acids in C. megalobotrys seed oil are palmitic and oleic acids at 19.51 % and 18.37 %, respectively. These acids are important as starting materials in soap, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. The fatty acids of the two seed oils absorb light at the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This means that cosmetic products made from these seed oils will be effective in protecting the human skin against ultraviolet radiation. The FT-IR peaks for the two seed oils show that even though these seed oils are made up of different fatty acids, the active sites of their fatty acids are similar, implying that these seed oils can be used as starting materials in similar industries.
Anjani, K. (2014). A re-evaluation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) as a crop plant. CAB Reviews, 9, 38
AOAC, 2006. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Asong, J. A., Ndhlovu, P. T., Khosana, N. S., Aremu, A. O., & Otang-Mbeng, W. (2019). Medicinal plants used for skin-related diseases among the Batswanas in Ngaka Modiri Molema District Municipality, South Africa. South African journal of botany, 126, 11-20.
Bokhari, A., Chuah, L. F., Yusup, S., Ahmad, J., & Aziz, H. (2015). Kapok seed oil extraction using soxhlet extraction method: optimization and parametric study. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 9(37), 429-431.
Chinsembu, K. C., Syakalima, M., & Semenya, S. S. (2019). Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic diseases in Lusaka, Zambia. South African Journal of Botany, 122, 369-384.
Franke, H., Scholl, R., & Aigner, A. (2019). Ricin and Ricinus communis in pharmacology and toxicology-from ancient use and “Papyrus Ebers” to modern perspectives and “poisonous plant of the year 2018”. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology, 392(10), 1181-1208.
Gabalebatse, M., Ngwenya, B. N., Teketay, D., & Kolawole, O. D. (2013). Ethno-veterinary practices amongst livestock farmers in Ngamiland District, Botswana. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 10(3), 490-502.
Gatonye, Tietjen, I., T., Ngwenya, B. N., Namushe, A., Simonambanga, S., Muzila, M., ... & Andrae-Marobela, K. (2016). Croton megalobotrys Müll Arg. and Vitex doniana (Sweet): Traditional medicinal plants in a three-step treatment regimen that inhibit in vitro replication of HIV-1. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 191, 331-340.
Hedberg, I., & Staugård, F. (1989). Traditional medicinal plants (Vol. 3). Ipelegeng Publishers.
Heikal, E. K., Elmelawy, M. S., Khalil, S. A., & Elbasuny, N. M. (2017). Manufacturing of environment friendly biolubricants from vegetable oils. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 26(1), 53-59.
Ichihara, K. I., & Fukubayashi, Y. (2010). Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-liquid chromatography [S]. Journal of lipid research, 51(3), 635-640.
Kružlicová, D., Mocak, J., Katsoyannos, E., & Lankmayr, E. (2008). Classification and characterization of olive oils by UV-Vis absorption spectrometry and sensorial analysis. Journal of Food & Nutrition Research, 47(4).
Kubala, J. (2018). 7 Benefits and uses of castor oil Castor Oils. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/castor-oil
Langat, M. K., Djuidje, E. F., Ndunda, B. M., Isyaka, S. M., Dolan, N. S., Ettridge, G. D., ... & Kamdem, A. F. (2020). The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys. Phytochemistry Letters, 40, 148-155.
Liddle, H. (2021). Linoleic acid in skin care. https://www.cosmetify.com/us/linoleic- acid- in- skin-care/
Maroyi, A. (2017). Ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Croton megalobotrys Mϋll Arg: A systematic review. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 16(10), 2535-2543.
Marwat, S., Khan, E. A., Baloch, M. S., Sadiq, M., Ullah, I., Javaria, S., & Shaheen, S. (2017). Ricinus cmmunis: Ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 30(5).
May, C. Y., & Nesaretnam, K. (2014). Research advancements in palm oil nutrition. European journal of lipid science and technology, 116(10), 1301-1315.
Mubofu, E. B. (2016). Castor oil as a potential renewable resource for the production of functional materials. Sustainable Chemical Processes, 4(1), 1-12.
Neelo, J., Kashe, K., Teketay, D., & Masamba, W. (2015). Ethnobotanical survey of woody plants in Shorobe and Xobe villages, northwest region of Botswana. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 14, 367-379.
Omahu, O. J., & Omale, A. C. (2017). Physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of castor bean Ricinus communis L. seed oil. American Journal of Applied and Industrial Chemistry, 3(1), 1-4.
Omari, A., Mgani, Q. A., & Mubofu, E. B., 2015. Fatty acid profile and physico-chemical parameters of castor oils in Tanzania. Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 5(4), 154-163.
Panhwar, T., Mahesar, S. A., Mahesar, A. W., Kandhro, A. A., Talpur, F. N., Laghari, Z. H., ... & Sherazi, S. T. H. (2016). Characteristics and composition of a high oil yielding castor variety from Pakistan. Journal of oleo science, 65(6), 471-476.
Parekh, V. J., Rathod, V. K., & Pandit, A. B. (2011). Substrate hydrolysis: Methods, mechanism, and industrial applications of substrate hydrolysis.
Sarasan, G., & Rangwala, J. A. (2014). Synthesis of soap from non-edible oils and a comparative study of quality parameters. International Journal of Chemical Sciences, 12(1), 306-314.
Sejkorová, M., Šarkan, B., Veselík, P., & Hurtová, I. (2020). FTIR Spectrometry with PLS Regression for Rapid TBN Determination of Worn Mineral Engine Oils. Energies, 13(23), 6438.
Semenya, S. S., & Maroyi, A. (2019). Ethnobotanical survey of plants used by Bapedi traditional healers to treat tuberculosis and its opportunistic infections in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany, 122, 401-421.
Setshogo, M., & Fenter, F. (2003). Trees of Botswana: names and distribution. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 18. Pretoria, Southern African Botanical Diversity Network (SABONET).
Shi, L., Liu, Z., Li, J., & Qin, Z. (2017). Analysis of edible vegetable oils by infrared absorption spectrometry. Advances in Engineering Research, 86, 286-289.
Shikha, K., & Chauhan, Y. R. (2012). Biodiesel production from non- edible- oils: a review. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 4(9), 4219-4230.
Susan, C. (1992). Handbook of food, drug, and cosmetic excipients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73(1), 41-44.
UN, U. (2017). Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division.
Venter, F., & Venter, J. A. (2007). Making the most of indigenous trees. Briza publications.
World Population Growth, (2021). Projections of population growth. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Projections_of_population_growth, searched on the 11th of June 2021
Yaşar, F. (2020). Comparision of fuel properties of biodiesel fuels produced from different oils to determine the most suitable feedstock type. Fuel, 264, 116817.
Yeboah, A., Ying, S., Lu, J., Xie, Y., Amoanimaa-Dede, H., Boateng, K. G. A., ... & Yin, X. (2020). Castor oil (Ricinus communis): a review on the chemical composition and physicochemical properties. Food Science and Technology.
Yuenyong, J., Pokkanta, P., Phuangsaijai, N., Kittiwachana, S., Mahatheeranont, S., & Sookwong, P. (2021). GC-MS and HPLC-DAD analysis of fatty acid profile and functional phytochemicals in fifty cold-pressed plant oils in Thailand. Heliyon, 7(2), e06304.
Copyright (c) 2021 Banyaladzi Doctor Paphane, Bonang Nkoane, Olayinka Adebisi Oyetunji
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.