Factors Influencing Management of Human Excrement through Biogas Technology in Mukuru Kwa Njenga Slums, Nairobi City County Kenya

  • Lilian Munyigi Kenyatta University
  • Daniel Mang’uriu, PhD Kenyatta University
Keywords: Biogas, Sustainable Sanitation, Human Health, Waterborne Diseases, Bio-Digesters, Renewable Energy, Human Excrement
Share Article:


One of the factors influencing the achievement of sustainable sanitation is the proper disposal of human excrement. The problem is most prevalent in informal settlements, where sewerage systems are rare. One of the approaches considered sustainable is the conversion of human excrement into renewable energy via biogas technology. The purpose of the study, which was guided by Roger's theory of innovation diffusion, was to investigate the key factors that influence human excrement management through biogas technology. Mukuru Kwa Njenga slums were chosen as a study area. A sample of 100 people was selected using systematic random sampling. Data were analysed using a social science statistics package. Multiple linear regression was used to determine demographic factors that influence technology adoption. The Chi-square test was used to examine the relationship between various variables. Tables and charts were used to present the data. The study revealed that gender (p=.001) and education level (p=.000) significantly influence the use of biogas technology in the management of human excrement. Technology failure ((χ2= 10.301, p=.036) and lack of technical skills ((χ2= 7.518, p=.128) have no significant effect on the technology adoption rate. Cultural beliefs (χ2= 23.665, P=.000) have a significant effect on the use of biogas produced from human excrement. The ability of technology to prevent overflowing of faecal matter during heavy rainfall (χ2= 23.937, P=.000) and the prevention of odour from sanitation facilities (χ2=17.983, p= .001) has encouraged many residents to use the technology. The study concludes that technical and socio-economic factors, as well as its relative advantage over other excrement disposal methods, influence its adoption rate


Download data is not yet available.


Albronda, B., De Langen, F., & Huizing, B. (2011). The influence of communication on the process of innovation adoption. Innovative Management Journal, 4(1), 22-31. https://doi.org/10.34894/pbc1wb

Amoah, A., Kwablah, E., Korle, K. and Offei, D. (2020). Renewable energy consumption in Africa: the role of economic well-being and economic freedom. Energy Sustainability and Society 10 (32). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13705-020-00264-3

General Assembly. (2015). Sustainable development goals. SDGs Transform Our World, 2030. New York City, United States of America. https://sdgs.un.org/2030agenda

Donacho, D. O., Tucho, G. T., Olani, D. D., Kabtiyimer, H. E., Hailu, A. B., & Wolde, A. D. (2023). Experimental evaluation of fresh human faeces biogas and compost potential: Evidence for circular economy from waste streams in Ethiopia. Heliyon, 9(12). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e22494

Colombo, V., Chenal, J., Orina, F., Meme, H., Koffi, J. D. A. A., Koné, B., & Utzinger, J. (2023). Environmental determinants of access to shared sanitation in informal settlements: a cross-sectional study in Abidjan and Nairobi. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 12(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-023-01078-2

Erick, M. K., Kirubi, G., & Muriuki, S. (2018). Key Factors influencing adoption of biogas technology in Meru Country, Kenya. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 12(3), 57-67. https://doi.org/10.9790/2402-1203015767

François, M., Lin, K. S., Vaincoeur, E., Rachmadona, N., & Khoo, K. S. (2023). Haitians’ perceptions of biogas produced via human excreta: An approach to the democratization of energy systems. Chemosphere, 334(138986). https://doiorg/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138986

Graf-Vlachy, L., Buhtz, K., & König, A. (2018). Social influence in technology adoption: taking stock and moving forward. Management Review Quarterly, 68(1), 37-76. https//doi/10:1007/s11301-0133-3

Hazra, S., Lewis, J., Das, I. & Singh, A. (2014). Adoption and use of improved stoves and biogas plants in rural India.www.sandeeonline.org

Irfan, M. (2013). The perception about the biogas technology adoption: a case study of District Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 17(2), 256-259. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosl_mjsr.2013.17.02.11891

Jadhav, M. P., & Sudhakar, D. S. S. (2015). Analysis of burner for biogas by computational fluid dynamics and optimization of design by genetic algorithm. International Journal for Research in Emerging Science and Technology, 2, 39- 44. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/2804888.63

Josue, N. O., Wilfrid, L. N., & Dieumerci, O. D. (2023). Theoretical Analysis of Biogas Production from Septic Tanks: The Case of the City of Kinshasa. Natural Science, 15(4), 149- 166. https://doi.org/10.4236/ns.2023.154011

Kasala, S. E., Burra, M. M., & Mwankenja, T.S. (2016). Access to improved sanitation in informal settlements’: The Case of Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Current urban studies, 4, 23- 35. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/cus.2016.41003

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2019). 2019 Kenya population and housing census: volume 11 distribution of population by administrative unit. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Nairobi, Kenya.https://www.knbs.or.ke/download/2019-kenya-population-and-housing-census

Libby, J. A. (2018). An Evaluation of Pit Latrines and User Perception of Excrement in Ngäbe Communities in Panama. University of South Florida. https: digitalcommons.usf.edu/etd/7329

Nassiuma, D. K. (2000). Survey sampling. Theory and methods, Nairobi University Press. Nairobi. 10(1), 59- 63. http://hdl.handle.net/11295/63034

Nethengwe, T., & Kutcherov, V. (2019). Barriers to the wider implementation of biogas as a source of energy: A state-of-the-art review. Energy Strategy Reviews, 26, 100414 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2019.100414

Nevzorova, T., & Kutcherov, V. (2019). Barriers to the wider implementation of biogas as a source of energy: A state-of-the-art review. Energy Strategy Reviews, 26, 100414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2019.100414

Momanyi, R. K., &Benards, A. H. O. A. O. (2016). Social-Economic Factors Influencing Biogas Technology Adoption among Households in Kilifi County-Kenya. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy, 6, 20-33

Mumbi, M. R. (2017). Adoption of human waste biogas technology by rural households in Kiganjo division, Kiambu County, Kenya (doctoral dissertation, Kenyatta University). http: //ir.library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/19351

Mutai, P., Niwagaba, C., Tumuhairwe, J. B., Kulabako, R., Katukiza, A., Nyenje, P., & Kansiime, F. (2016). Key factors affecting performance of biogas latrines in urban informal areas: Case of Kampala and Nairobi, East Africa. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 10(7), 207- 220. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJEST2016-2018

Mwakaje, A. G. (2012). Dairy Farming and the Stagnated Biogas Use in Rungwe District, Tanzania: An Investigation of the Constraining Factors. Institute of Resource Assessment. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/9484

Ogunwande, G. A., Adeleye, A. I., Nureni, I. O., & Omidiora, O. (2018). The effects of cleaning/disinfecting agents on biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of cow dung slurry. Environmental technology, 39(14), 1803- 1813.https://doi.org/10:8010/09593330.2017.1340346

Onojo, O.J., Chukwedebe, C. A., Okator, E.N., Ononiwu, G.C., Chukwuchekwa, N., Opara, R.O., & Dike, D.O. (2013). Estimation of the electric potential of human waste using hostel students’ hostel soak-away pits. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), 2(9), 198-203.www.ajer.org

Rheinländer, T., Keraita, B., Konradsen, F., Samuelsen, H., & Dalsgaard, A. (2013). Smell: an overlooked factor in sanitation promotion. Waterlines, 106- 112.https://doi.org/10.3362/1756-3488.2013.012

Sahin, I. (2006). Detailed review of Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory and educational technology-related studies based on Rogers' theory. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 5(2), 14-23. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED501453.pdf

Schuster-Wallace, C.J., Wild, C., & Metcalfec. (2015). Valuing Human Waste as an Energy Resource. A Research Brief Assessing the Global Wealth in Waste.United Nations University. Institute for Water, Environment and Health (ANU- INWEH). http://inweh.anu.eduy

Talukder, M. (2012). Factors affecting the adoption of technological innovation by individual employees: An Australian study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 52- 57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.160

Uhunamure, S. E., Nethengwe, N. S., & Tinarwo, D. (2019). Correlating the factors influencing household decisions on adoption and utilization of biogas technology in South Africa. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 107, 264- 273. https:/doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2019.03.006

UNICEF. (2023). Sanitation and Hygiene for All:'Make a Splash!'Partnership Progress Report 2022-2023. Vellman, Y., Mason, E., Graham, W., Benova, L., Chopra, M., Campbell, O. M., & Cumming, O. (2014). From joint thinking to joint action: a call to action on improving water, sanitation, and hygiene for maternal and newborn health. Plos medicine, 11(12), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001771.

Wachera, R. (2009). Assessing the challenges of adopting biogas technology in energy provision among dairy farmers in Nyeri County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, KenyattaUniversity). http: //irlibrary.ku.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/123456789/1194.

Wamuchiru, E. &Moulaert, F. (2017). Thinking through the community Bio-centres approach in Water and Sewerage service provision in Nairobi Informal Settlements. Journal of environmental planning and management, 1(20), 2166- 2185. https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2017.1389699.

Wamuyu, M. S. (2014). Analysis of biogas technology for household energy, sustainable livelihoods and climate change mitigation in Kiambu County, Kenya. (Dotoral dissertation, Kenyatta University)

Wawa, A. (2012). The challenges of promoting and adopting biogas technology as an alternative energy resource in Semi-arid areas of Tanzania: the case of Kongwa and Bahi Districts of Dodoma region. (Doctoral dissertation, Open University of Tanzania). Available at repository.out.ac.tz/319.http://repository.out.ac.tz/id/eprint/319

World Health Organization. (2020). State of the World’s sanitation: an urgent call to transform sanitation for better health, environments, economies, and societies. World Health Organization.https://www.who.int/publication/i/item/9789240014473

12 May, 2024
How to Cite
Munyigi, L., & Mang’uriu, D. (2024). Factors Influencing Management of Human Excrement through Biogas Technology in Mukuru Kwa Njenga Slums, Nairobi City County Kenya. East African Journal of Environment and Natural Resources, 7(1), 141-156. https://doi.org/10.37284/eajenr.7.1.1918