Evaluation of Non-revenue Water Management: A Case Study of Lodwar Water Supply in Lodwar Municipality, Kenya

  • Keya Mucholwa Wanjala Augustus University of Nairobi
  • Ezekiel Nyangeri Nyanchaga, PhD University of Nairobi
  • Bernard N. Kimani Njoroge, PhD University of Nairobi
Keywords: Non-revenue Water (NRW), Water Balance, Network audit, WASREB, System Input Metering
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This paper scrutinises the availability and effectiveness of non-revenue water management practices at Lodwar Water Supply, which serves an urban populace in Arid, Northern Kenya. The case study is representative of medium-sized water utilities serving populations in water-scarce areas within developing countries. Challenges encountered by water utilities in developing countries are unique, and their resolution requires context-specific approaches. For instance, Lodwar water supply posted an estimated 52% non-revenue water in a recent assessment by Kenya’s water services regulatory agency (WaSREB). The utility lost half of its production. This is unacceptable for a water utility serving an arid service area with 43% water coverage. This paper documents the findings of a causal study conducted to identify probable reasons for the water utility performance and develop recommendations to reverse the worsening non-revenue water trend. Four aspects were identified for scrutiny at the water utility; these were: Availability of strategies, methods, and policies for non-revenue water reduction; Employee and Consumer awareness of non-revenue water management; Techniques for enumeration of components of non-revenue water and the nexus between the foregoing and the prevailing poor non-revenue water and overall performance of the water utility. Three hundred eighty-five questionnaires were administered to consumers, randomly sampled across the selected study area. This was followed by a non-quantitative audit of non-revenue water practices by the water utility and focused group discussions with top management and technical staff at the water utility. This study established the absence of deliberate strategies for control of non-revenue water by the water utility as the critical reason for the unacceptably poor non-revenue water and overall performance of Lodwar Water Supply. Recommendations for mitigation of non-revenue water included the establishment of zone-specific, updated consumer database; DMAs with functional inflow meters; acquisition of meter testing and calibration system; institution of active leakage control initiatives and personnel capacity development


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25 October, 2023
How to Cite
Augustus, K., Nyanchaga, E., & Njoroge, B. (2023). Evaluation of Non-revenue Water Management: A Case Study of Lodwar Water Supply in Lodwar Municipality, Kenya. East African Journal of Environment and Natural Resources, 6(1), 394-409. https://doi.org/10.37284/eajenr.6.1.1534