Climate Change Adaptation Strategies among Tobacco Small Scale Growers at Kiloleli Village in Sikonge District, Tanzania
Climate change is being discussed regularly at the global level. The study was conducted to evaluate the adaptation strategies of the effects of climate change among tobacco small scale growers at Kiloleni Village in Tabora region, Tanzania. Yamane formula was used to calculate the sample size. Questionnaires and checklists were used as tools for data collection in the field. Secondary data were obtained by reviewing various published and unpublished documents. Data were analysed using the statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) software. The indicators of climate change on small scale tobacco growers based on the respondents were an increase in temperature, crop wilting, increase in insects, decrease in river water, soil dryness, strong wind, infertility of soil, crop dwindled growth, low rainfall, an increase of diseases, dryness of wells and poor air quality. The identified effects of climate change were drought, floods, hunger, soil erosion, a decrease of area for pasture, death of crops, dryness of river and production is still decreasing and increase of diseases to tobacco. Climate change effects were revealed to be such a burning issue to the small-scale growers that needed strategies to minimize the effects of climate change. Among strategies for reducing the effects of climate change were tree planting as the most useful way of adapting to climate change of all other strategies. The other adaptation strategies to the effects of climate change were drought-resistant crop cultivation, education, agroforestry practices, formulation of bylaws, use of alternative sources of energy and crop rotation. Climate change has shown severe damage to small scale tobacco growers and thus reducing crop yields. This study sets the following recommendations; tree planting, application of agroforestry, education offered by extension officers, formulation of bylaws, also further study is needed and awareness creation on the effect of climate change and the mitigation strategies.
Adger, W. N., Agrawala, S., Mirza, M. M. Q., Conde, C., Brien, O., Pulhin, K., Pulhin, J., Pulwarty, R., Smith, B. & Takahashi, K. (2007). Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 717 – 743). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Admassie A, Adenew B and Tadege A. (2008). Perceptions of stakeholders on climate change and adaptation strategies in Ethiopia. International Food Policy Research Institute and Ethiopian Economic Association.
Birkmann, J., Garschagen, M., Kraas, F., & Quang, N. (2010). Adaptive urban governance: new challenges for the second generation of urban adaptation strategies to climate change. Sustainability Science, 5(2), 185-206.
Bosire, J. (2009). Climate Change Favours crops. The East African recast and replace, Kenya.
Chaudron, R., & Carlier, K. (2014). The advantages of random sampling versus cutting-of-the-tail: the application of stratified sample design for the collection of data on special financial institutions in the Netherlands. Statistics and Information Division of the Nederlandsche Bank.
Fadina, A. M. R. & Barjolle, D. (2018). Farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change and their implications in the Zou Department of South Benin. Environments, 5(1), 15.
Kurukulasuriya, P., & Mendelsohn, R. (2008). Crop switching as a strategy for adapting to climate change. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 2(311-2016-5522), 105-126.
Majule AE, Stathers T, Lamboll R, Liwenga ET, Ngongondo C, Kalanda- Joshua M, Swai E and Chipungu F. (2013). Enhancing capacities of individuals, institutions and organisations to adapt to climate change in the agricultural sector using innovative approaches in Tanzania and Malawi. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1(6), 220 – 231.
Miller, S. A. (2008). Development Research methods (Fifth Edition). London: Sage.
Morton, J. F. (2007). The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 104(50), 19680-19685.
Mtalo, F., Mulungu, D., Mwanuzi, F., Mkhandi, S., Kimaro, T., & Valimba, P. (2005). Hydrology of the Eastern Arc Mountains. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Forestry and Beekeeping Division.
Norrington-Davies, G., & Thornton, N. (2011). Climate change financing and aid effectiveness. Tanzania Case Study. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - Development Assistance Committee.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2017. Climate change. Synthesis report on the contribution of working groups, I, II and III to the fourth assessment report of the inter-government panel on climate. The Science of Climate Change: Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Houghton, Cambridge University.
United Republic of Tanzania (2002). Population and Housing Census 2002 - IPUMS Subset.
Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) Centre. National Bureau of Statistics, Minnesota Population Center.
United Republic of Tanzania (URT). (2007). National adaptation plan of action (NAPA). Vice President’s Office, Division of Environment. Dar es Salaam, Government printers.
The United Republic of Tanzania. (2013). Population and Housing Census, Population
Distribution by Administrative Areas for 2012. National Bureau of Statistics Ministry of Finance Dar es Salaam, Office of Chief Government Statistician President’s Office, Finance, Economy and Development Planning Zanzibar.
United Republic of Tanzania (2016). Ministry of works, transport and communication Tanzania
National Roads Agency. resettlement action plan (rap) for rapid transit system for phase 2 and 3 in Dar es salaam city submitted to: world bank transport sector support project world bank, SFG587, Vol 2, 1-59.
USAID. (2007). Adapting to climate variability and change. A guidance manual for development planning. Washington. DC: United States Agency for International Development.
Wilson, E. (2006). Adapting to climate change at the local level: the spatial planning response. Local environment, 11(6), 609-625.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2017). Tobacco and its environmental impact. Tobacco-free Initiative (TFI) Publications.
Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Edition. New York: Harper and Row.
Copyright (c) 2020 Canisius John Kayombo, Lambert Komba, Almas Kashindye
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.