Analytical Design of a Portable Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor by Using a Divergence Beam for Measuring Multiple Heavy Metals and Other Contamination Simultaneously

  • Jordan H. Hossea Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology
  • Georgia Rugumira Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology
Keywords: Divergence Beam, SPR Sensor, Multiple Heavy Metal Ion
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The study proposes a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for measuring water quality by detecting the presence of heavy metal ions and other contamination. The proposed SPR sensor operates in the Kretschmann configuration, which employs the divergence beam produced by the Powell lens. The beam is diverged to eliminate mechanical scanning, indicating that the sensor can measure water quality from deionized water (DIW) with refractive index (RI) of 1.3317, diluted DIW with multiple heavy metal ion such as Hg[II], Pb[II], Ni[II], Zn[II], Cu[II] at concentration of 100 μM and other pollutant with the RI of 1.34 without any mechanical movement. The proposed SPR sensor has a theoretical sensitivity of 399.45˚/RIU and resolution of 1.3456×10-8 and 8.3790×10-10RIU with 8-bits (ATmega1284) and 12-bits (STM32F401RE) ADC of the controller, respectively. The CCD sensor (TCD1304AP) and microcontroller data sheets were used to calculate the theoretical in which all these components are very chip. The reported sensitivity and resolution were achieved because of the proper application and optimization of TiO2 and BaTiO3. In comparison to a conventional SPR sensor, the proposed SPR improved sensitivity and figure of merits by 50.98 % and 13.93 %, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed SPR sensor outperforms recently published research in terms of performance


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4 June, 2024
How to Cite
Hossea, J., & Rugumira, G. (2024). Analytical Design of a Portable Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor by Using a Divergence Beam for Measuring Multiple Heavy Metals and Other Contamination Simultaneously. East African Journal of Engineering, 7(1), 148-161.