Brand Image as a Determinant of Customer Loyalty in Selected Nairobi Hotels

  • Lydia Aluoch Akunja Moi University
Keywords: Customer Loyalty, Brand Image, Branding, Hospitality, Hotel
Share Article:


Loyalty among customers is a major purpose for firms seeking lasting connections with their patrons.  Creating and sustaining an acceptable product image with consumers is vital for sustaining a business in today’s spirited markets. The relationship between brand image and customer loyalty in hotels is blurred. Additionally, scholarly works associated with brand image and loyalty in the hotel and hospitality sector in Kenya is inadequate, hence the study gap. The study purpose sought to investigate the effects of brand image on customer loyalty in Kenyan hotels It employed an explanatory research design. From a target population of 1,191 customers, 253 formed the sample size while six marketing executives were interviewed for key information.  Purposive, stratified, and systematic random sampling methods were used. Instruments for data collection included self-administered questionnaires and interview schedules. Data was reduced using factor analysis and simple regression conducted to test study hypotheses. Findings indicated that brand image (t=12.747, p<.001) considerably affected loyalty among customers. The study concludes that advancement in the brand image likely results in enhanced loyalty. The study, therefore, recommends that hospitality operations should focus on tangible dimensions of their units, promote staff-guest interactions and increase measures to enhance their corporate image to remain competitive while retaining existing customers and attracting new ones.


Download data is not yet available.


Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing brand equity. New York, NY: Free Press.

Aaker, D. A. (1996). Building a strong brand: The Free Press.

Agarwal, M. K., & Rao, V. R. (1996). An empirical comparison of consumer-based measures of brand equity. Marketing letters, 7(3), 237-247.

Andreassen, T. W., Lindestad, B., & Barometer, C. S. (1997). Customer Loyalty and Complex Services: The Impact of Corporate Image on Quality, Customer Satisfaction. Management, 8(4), 7-23.

Assael, H. (1998). Consumer behaviour and marketing action. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western.

Aydin, S., & Özer, G. (2005). The analysis of antecedents of customer loyalty in the Turkish mobile telecommunication market. European Journal of Marketing, 39(7/8), 910-25.

Berry, L. L. (2000). Cultivating service brand equity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1), 128-137.

Bloemer, J., Ruyter, K., & Peeters, P. (1998). Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: The complex relationship between image, service quality, and satisfaction. The International Journal of Bank Marketing, 16(7), 276-286.

Bowen, J. T., & Shoemaker, S. (2003). Loyalty: A strategic commitment. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 44(5-6), 31-46.

Cai, L. A., & Hobson, J. P. (2004). Making hotel brands work in a competitive environment. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(3), 197-208.

Chitty, B., Ward, S., & Chua, C. (20017). An application of the ECSI model as a predictor of satisfaction and loyalty for backpacker hostels. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 25, 563-580.

Cretu, A. E., & Brodie, R. J. (2007). The influence of brand image and company reputation where manufacturers market to small firms: A customer value perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 36(2), 230-240.

Daun, W., & Klinger, R. (2006). Delivering the message. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 18(3), 246-252.

Dobni, D., & Zinkhan, G. M. (1990). In search of brand image: A foundation analysis. Advances in Consumer Research, 17, 110-119.

Feldwick, P. (1996). What is brand equity anyway, and how do you measure it? Market Research Society. Journal., 38(2), 1-17.

Fredericks, J. O., & Salt, J. M. (1995). Beyond customer satisfaction. Management Review, 29-32.

Gilmore, J. H., and J. (2002). Pine. Differentiating hospitality operations via experiences. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 43 (3): 87-96.

Gounaris, S., & Stathakopoulos, V. (2004). Antecedents and consequences of brand loyalty: An empirical study. Journal of Brand Management, 11(4), 283-306.

Griffin, J., & Herres, R. T. (2002). Customer loyalty: How to earn it, how to keep it. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Gronroos, C. (1984). A service quality model and its marketing implications. European Journal of Marketing, 18(4), 36-44.

Gronroos, C. (Ed.). (2000). Service management and marketing (2nd ed.): John Wiley and Son.

Harris, L. C., & Goode, M. M. (2004). The four levels of loyalty and the pivotal role of trust: a study of online service dynamics. Journal of retailing, 80(2), 139-158.

Hogg, M., Askegaard, S., Bamossy, G., & Solomon, M. (2006). Consumer behaviour: a European perspective. Madrid: Prentice-Hall.

Jacoby, J., & Chestnut, R. W. (1978). Brand loyalty: Measurement and management. New York Wiley.

Kandampully, J., & Hu, H. H. (2007). Do hoteliers need to manage image to retain loyal customers? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(6), 435-443.

Keaveney, S. M., & Hunt, K. A. (1992). Conceptualization and operationalization of retail store image: A case of rival middle-level theories. Academy of Marketing Science Journal, 20(2), 165-175.

Keiningham, T. L., Aksoy, L., Cooil, B., & Andreassen, T. W. (2008). Linking customer loyalty to growth. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(4), 51-57.

Keller, K. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1-22.

Kim, H., & Kim, W. (2005). The relationship between brand equity and firms' performance in luxury hotels and chain restaurants. Tourism Management, 26(4), 549-560.

Knox, S., & Walker, D. (2001). Measuring and managing brand loyalty. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 9(2), 111-128.

Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2004). Principles of marketing (Vol. 10th). Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice-Hall.

Kotler, P., Bowen, J. T., & Makens, J. C. (2010). Marketing for hospitality and tourism (5th ed.). Prentice-Hall.

Lai, F., Griffin, M., & Babin, B. J. (2009). How quality, value, image, and satisfaction create loyalty at a Chinese telecom. Journal of Business Research, (62), 980-986.

Lau, G. T., & Lee, S. H. (2009). Consumers' trust in a brand and the link to brand loyalty. Journal of Market - Focused Management, 4(4), 341.

Lee, M., Knight, D., & Kim, Y. (2008). Brand analysis of a US global brand in comparison with domestic brands in Mexico, Korea, and Japan. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 17, 163-174.

Mattila, A. S. (1999). The role of culture and purchase motivation in service encounter evaluations. Journal of Services Marketing, 13(4/5), 376.

Mattila, A. S. (2006). How effective commitment boosts guest loyalty (and promotes frequent-guest programs). Cornell Hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, 47(2), 174-181.

Mazanec, J. A. (1995). Positioning analysis with self-organizing maps. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 36(6), 80-95.

McMullan, R., & Gilmore, A. (2003). The conceptual development of customer loyalty measurement: A proposed scale. Journal of Targeting, Measurement, and Analysis for Marketing, 11(3), 230-243.

O’Neill, J. W., & Mattila, A. S. (2004). Hotel branding strategy: Its relationship to guest satisfaction and room revenue. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 28(2), 156-165.

O'Neill, J. W., & Xiao, Q. (2006). The role of brand affiliation in hotel market value. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 47, 210-223.

Odin, Y., Odin, N., & Valette-Florence, P. (2001). Conceptual and operational aspects of brand loyalty: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business Research, 53(2), 75-84.

Oh, H. (1999). Service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer value: A holistic perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 18(1), 67-82.

Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63(4_suppl1), 33-44.

Park, C. W., Jun, S. Y., & Shocker, A. D. (1996). Composite branding alliances: An investigation of extension and feedback effects. Journal of Marketing Research, 33(4), 453-466.

Park, C. S. & Srinivasan, V. (1996). A survey-based method for measuring and understanding brand equity and its extendibility. Journal of Marketing Research, 31(May), 271-88.

Pessemier, E. (1959). A new way to determine buying decisions. Journal of Marketing, 24(2), 41-46.

Peterson, M., & Iyer, D. S. (2006). Gauging an industry standard of attitudinal loyalty for vacation lodging in the USA. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 12(2), 107-118.

Prus, A., and Brandt, D. R. (1995). Understanding your customers. American Demographics, Jul (1995), 10-13.

Reichheld, F. F. (1996). The Loyalty Effect: The Hidden Force Behind Growth. Profits and Lasting Value. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Sangster, A., Wolton, J., & McKenney, S. (2001). The international hotel industry–corporate strategies and global opportunities. London: Travel and Tourism Intelligence.

Schuiling, I., & Kapferer, J. (2004). Real differences between local and international brands: Strategic implications for international marketers. Journal of International Marketing, 12(4), 97-112.

Shoemaker, S., & Lewis, R. C. (1999). Customer loyalty: the future of hospitality marketing. International journal of hospitality management, 18(4), 345-370.

Srivastava, R. K. & Shocker, A. D. (1991). Brand equity: a perspective on its meaning and measurement, Working Paper No. 91-124. Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute.

Stone, M. & Woodcock, N. (1995). Relationship Marketing. London, UK: Kogan Page.

Tucker, W. T. (1964). The development of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing Research, 1(000003), 32 35.

17 June, 2020
How to Cite
Akunja, L. (2020). Brand Image as a Determinant of Customer Loyalty in Selected Nairobi Hotels. East African Journal of Business and Economics, 2(1), 29-42.