Family Characteristics as Predictors of Youth Livelihood Outcomes in Kenya
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of family characteristics on youth livelihood outcomes (YLO) in Kenya. A survey was conducted on a random sample of 201 respondents aged between 18 to 35 years who were selected from a list of members of registered self-help youth groups. Data was gathered through a questionnaire and analysed by the se of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Youth livelihood outcomes occurred along a continuum of three levels, namely: survival, security and growth livelihood levels. Results revealed that 52% of the respondents attained survival livelihood level, 18% attained the security level, and 30% attained the growth level of youth livelihood outcomes. Research findings indicated that family characteristics improved prediction power of youth livelihoods outcomes by 72.1% (R2 = 0.721; Log-Likelihood Ratio (χ2 = 203.18; d.f = 12; p = 0.000). The significant predictors of youth livelihood outcomes were the aggregate family income (β=1.00, p=0.000), paternal education (β = 1.60, p = 0.016), parental support (β = 1.93, p = 0.047), number of dependents (β = 0.02, p = 0.001), and aggregate family assets (β = 1.00, p = 0.019). However, family expenditure (χ2 = 2.37; d.f. = 2; p > 0.05) and maternal education (χ2 = 9.72; d.f. = 3; p > 0.05) had no statistically significant relationship with youth livelihood outcomes. These results implied that that youth from middle-income families, whose fathers had acquired higher levels of education, and whose families had fewer dependents, had accumulated family assets and whose parents supported their livelihood strategies attained higher levels of youth livelihood outcomes compared to their counterparts who were less privileged on similar family characteristics. The outcomes of this study may be used to develop appropriate family and youth-focused interventions to enhance youth livelihood outcomes.
Carney, D. (1998). Implementing the sustainable rural livelihoods approach. In: Carney, D. (Ed.), Sustainable rural livelihoods: What contribution can we make? (pp. 3-23), London, UK: Department for International Development.
Carney, D., Drinkwater, M., Rusinow, T., Neefjes, K., Wanmali, S. & Singh, N. (1999). Livelihoods approaches compared: A brief comparison of the livelihoods approaches of the UK Department for International Development (DFID), CARE, Oxfam and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), London, UK: Department for International Development.
Chambers, R. (1989). Vulnerability: Coping and policy. London, UK: Institute of Development Studies Bulletin, 20 (2), 1-7.
Chambers, R. & Conway, G. (1992). Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st Century. University of Sussex, Institute for Development Studies, DP 296, Brighton.
Chiiran, G. G. (2014). Approaches to Guidance and Counselling and its Benefits to Youth: Kenyan Urban Experience. African Research Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 1 (1), 1-8.
Department for International Development [DFID]. (1999). Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets. Available from the livelihoods learning platform. Retrieved on 8th May 2020 from www.livelihoods.org.
Grown, C. A. & Sebstad, J. (1989). Introduction toward a wider perspective on women’s empowerment. World Development, 17(7), 937-952.
International Labour Office [ILO]. (2015). Global Unemployment Trends for Youth 2015: Scaling up investments in decent jobs for youth. Geneva, Switzerland.
Juarez, F., Legrand, T., Lloyd, C., Singh, S., & Hertrich, V. (2013). Youth migration and transitions to adulthood in developing countries. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 648 (1), 6-15.
Mago, S. & Mago, S. (2013). Asset-Building and Micro-finance: An Econometric Analysis. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4 (3), 311-350.
Maisiba, F. M. & Gongera, E. G. (2013). The Role of Youth Enterprise Development Fund (YEDF) in Job Creation: A Case of Dagoretti Constituency, Nairobi County, Kenya. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 4 (12), 240-289.
Meikle, S. (2002). The urban context and poor people. In Rakodi, C. & Lloyd-Jones, T. (Eds.), Urban Livelihoods: A People-Centered Approach to Reducing poverty (pp. 37-51), London: Earthscan.
McKee, T. (1989). Micro-level strategies for supporting livelihoods, employment and income generation for poor women in the Third World: The challenge of significance. World Development, 177 (7), 993-1006.
Muiya, B. M. (2014). The Nature, Challenges and Consequences of Urban Youth Unemployment: A Case of Nairobi City, Kenya. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 2(7) 495-503.
Njonjo, S. K. (2010). Youth Fact Book: Infinite Possibility of Definite Disaster? Institute of Economic Affairs and Friedrich-Ebert Stiftung, Nairobi: Elite Pre-Press Limited.
Omolo, O. J. (2011). Labour and Employment Inequalities in the Context of the East African Regional Integration Process. In Society for International Development, East African Integration: Dynamics of Equity in Trade, Education, Media and Labour. Nairobi: Ascent Limited.
Omolo, O.J. (2010). The Dynamics and Trends of Employment in Kenya. IEA Research Paper Series, No. 1/2010. Nairobi: Institute of Economic Affairs-Kenya.
Republic of Kenya (2008a). First Medium-Term Plan: Kenya Vision 2030- A Globally Competitive and Prosperous Kenya. Office of the Prime Minister, Minister of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Republic of Kenya. (2008b). Sector Plan for Labor, Youth and Human Resource Development, 2008-2012. Ministry of Labor. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Republic of Kenya. (1969). National Development Plan, 1970-1974. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Republic of Kenya. (1965). Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965 on African Socialism and its Application to Planning Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Scoones, I. (2009). Livelihoods perspectives and rural development. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 36(1), 171-196.
Schutte, S. (2005). Emerging trends in urban livelihoods. Kabul: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU).
United Nations Human Settlement Programme [UN-Habitat]. (2015). Youth. [Online] Available: http://unhabitat.org/urban-themes/youth/ [Accessed: July 1, 2020].
United States Agency for International Development (USAID). (2013). State of the field report: Examining the evidence in youth workforce development. Washington, D.C.: USAID.
Wahab, E. O., Odunsi, S. O., & Ajiboye, O. E. (2012). Causes and Consequences of Rapid Erosion of Cultural Values in a Traditional African Society. Journal of Anthropology, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/327061
World Bank, (2015). Kenya Overview. [Online] Available: www.world bank.org en/ country/Kenya/overview [Accessed: July 1, 2020].
Zhan, M. & Sherraden, M. (2003). “Assets, Expectations, and Children’s Educational Achievements in Female-Headed Households”. The Social Services Review, 77 (2), 45-69.
Copyright (c) 2020 Christine W Njuguna, PhD, Lucy W Ngige, PhD
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.