Visitor Profile: Shaping Experiential Quality, and Post-Consumption Behaviours in Kenyan Theme Parks

  • Joshua Ngacha Weru Chuka University
  • Joseph Muiruri Njoroge, PhD Murang’a University of Technology
  • Antoneta Kariru Njeri, PhD Murang’a University of Technology
Keywords: Visitor Profile, Experiential Quality, Perceived Value, Post-Consumption Behaviours, Visitor Satisfaction, Behavioural Intentions
Share Article:


Visitor experiences are individual occurrences characterized by their subjective nature. As a result, each consumer has a unique perspective on the quality of experience depending on their visitor profiles. The literature implies that demographic and travel characteristics are factors that may influence the perceptions of visitors. While some studies have examined the influence of these factors on marketing variables, more information is still needed to help predict visitors' post-consumption behaviours and to understand how they interpret experiences. This study explored whether experiential quality, perceived value, satisfaction, and behavioural intentions differ according to individuals’ demographics and travel characteristics. A survey was conducted collecting data from 324 visitors in presumed leading theme parks in Kenya. Independent two-sample t-test and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used for the analysis. Except for gender and first or repeat visitors, the results for all other demographic and travel characteristics showed significant differences in at least one of the variables studied


Download data is not yet available.


Adam, I. (2021). Negative tourist-to-tourist interactions, value destruction, satisfaction, and post-consumption behavioral intention. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 20(January), 100557.

Altunel, M. C., & Erkut, B. (2015). Cultural tourism in Istanbul: The mediation effect of tourist experience and satisfaction on the relationship between involvement and recommendation intention. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 4(4), 213– 221.

Avinash, B., & Vidyavathi, K. (2017). Influence of demographic factors on visitor perceived value and visitor satisfaction in Bangalore Amusement Parks. IRA-International Journal of Management & Social Sciences (ISSN 2455-2267), 6(3), 345.

Başarangil, İ. (2018). The relationships between the factors affecting perceived service quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions among theme park visitors. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 18(4), 415–428.

Bayih, B. E., & Singh, A. (2020). Modeling domestic tourism: motivations, satisfaction and tourist behavioral intentions. Heliyon, 6(9), e04839.

Bhat, S. A., & Darzi, M. A. (2018). Antecedents of tourist loyalty to tourist destinations: a mediated-moderation study. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 4(2), 261–278.

Biswas, C., Omar, H., & Rashid-Radha, J. Z. R. R. (2020). The impact of tourist attractions and accessibility on tourists’ satisfaction: The moderating role of tourists’ age. Geojournal of Tourism and Geosites , 32(4), 1202–1208.

Careless, J. (2022). Bouncing Back from the Pandemic: Three attractions share how they’ve reworked operations to adapt to challenges brought on by COVID-19. IAAPA.

Castro, H., Chang, B., Cheu, L., Fischer, L., Hoffman, M., Li, D., Lock, J., Marshall, J., Nonato, M., Posso, M., Robinett, J., Rubin, J., Yoshii, C., & Nelson, L. (2021). TEA/AECOM 2020 theme index and museum index: The global attractions attendance report.

Chang, H.-M., & Yen-Chen, H. (2022). A study on the effect of different demographic variables on tourists’ tourism behavior in Dajia Jenn Lann Temple. International Journal of Research in Tourism and Hospitality (IJRTH), 8(1), 16–26.

Cheng, Q., Du, R., & Ma, Y. (2016). Factors influencing theme park visitor brand-switching behaviour as based on visitor perception. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(14), 1425– 1446.

Choi, Y., Kim, J., Lee, C. K., & Hickerson, B. (2015). The role of functional and wellness values in visitors’ evaluation of spa experiences. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 20(3), 263– 279.

Constantin, C. P., Papuc-Damașcan, V., Blumer, A., Albu, R. G., Suciu, T., Candrea, A. N., & Ispas, A. (2021). Profiling visitors to Romanian ecotourism destinations. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(5).

Del Chiappa, G., Ladu, M. G., Meleddu, M., & Pulina, M. (2013). Investigating the degree of visitors’ satisfaction at a museum. Anatolia, 24(1), 52– 62.

Dolnicar, S., Coltman, T., & Sharma, R. (2015). Do satisfied tourists really intend to come back? Three concerns with empirical studies of the link between satisfaction and behavioral intention. Journal of Travel Research, 54(2), 152–178.

Dong, P., & Siu, N. Y. M. (2013). Servicescape elements, customer predispositions and service experience: The case of theme park visitors. Tourism Management, 36, 541–551.

Duan, X., Chan, C. shing, & Marafa, L. M. (2019). Does authenticity exist in cultural theme parks? A case study of Millennium City Park in Henan, China. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 17(3), 321– 338.

Feng, Y., Chen, X., & Lai, I. (2020). The effects of tourist experiential quality on perceived value and satisfaction with bed and breakfast stays in southwestern China. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, 4(1), 121–135.

Fu, X., Kang, J., Hahm, J. J., & Wiitala, J. (2020). Investigating the consequences of theme park experience through the lenses of self-congruity and flow. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(3), 1181– 1199.

Fu, X., Kang, J., & Tasci, A. (2017). Self-congruity and flow as antecedents of attitude and loyalty towards a theme park brand. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 34(9), 1261– 1273.

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2024). IBM SPSS Statistics 29 Step by Step. In IBM SPSS Statistics 29 Step by Step.

Ghorbanzade, D., Mehrani, H., & Rahehagh, A. (2019). The effect of experience quality on behavioral intentions of domestic tourists in visiting water parks. Cogent Business and Management, 6(1).

Hair Jr., J. F., Anderson, R. E., Babin, B. J., & Black, W. C. (2019). Multivariate data analysis, multivariate data analysis. Book, 87(4).

Hernández-Ortega, B. (2020). When the performance comes into play: The influence of positive online consumer reviews on individuals’ post-consumption responses. Journal of Business Research, 113(August), 422– 435.

Hussein, A. S., & Hapsari, R. (2020). Heritage experiential quality and behavioural intention: lessons from Indonesian heritage hotel consumers. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 1– 20.

IAAPA. (2019). Global theme and amusement park outlook 2019–2023.

Jin, N. (Paul), Lee, S., & Lee, H. (2015). The effect of experience quality on perceived value, satisfaction, image and behavioral intention of water park patrons: New versus repeat visitors. International Journal of Tourism Research, 17(1), 82–95.

Kang, J. (2018). Finding desirable post-consumption behaviors: An investigation of luxury value and romantic brand love relationships. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(9), 2984– 3003.

Kao, Y. F., Huang, L. S., & Wu, C. H. (2008). Effects of theatrical elements on experiential quality and loyalty intentions for theme parks. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 13(2), 163– 174.

Kim, H., & Kim, B. (2019). The evaluation of visitor experiences using the peak-end rule. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 14(5–6), 561–573.

Kim, M., & Thapa, B. (2018). Perceived value and flow experience: Application in a nature-based tourism context. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 8(August), 373–384.

Lemke, F., Clark, M., & Wilson, H. (2011). Customer experience quality: An exploration in business and consumer contexts using repertory grid technique. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(6), 846–869.

Loureiro, S. M. C. (2017). Medical tourists’ emotional and cognitive response to credibility and service scape. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(15), 1633– 1652.

Lu, C. Y., Dean, D., Suhartanto, D., Hussein, A. S., Suwatno, Kusdibyo, L., Chen, B. T., & Gunawan, A. I. (2021). Predicting tourist loyalty toward cultural creative attractions the moderating role of demographic factors. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism, 22(3), 293– 311.

Markovic, S., Jankovic, S. R., Racz, A., & Mitrovic, S. (2018). Empirical validation of demographic characteristics’ role in visitor experience: The case of Zagreb Christmas Market. Tourism & Hospitality Industry 2018: Trends and Challenges, 24th Biennial International Congress on Tourism and Hospitality Industry (THI), 230-245 WE-Conference Proceedings Citation Inde.

Milman, A., & Tasci, A. D. A. (2018). Exploring the experiential and sociodemographic drivers of satisfaction and loyalty in the theme park context. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 8(January), 385– 395.

Moisescu, O. I., Gică, O. A., & Dorobanțu, M. C. (2021). Exploring the drivers of visitor loyalty in the context of outdoor adventure parks: The case of Arsenal Park in Romania. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(19).

Mooi, E., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A concise guide to market research: the process, data, and methods using IBM SPSS Statistic. In the process, data, and methods using IBM SPSS statistics.

Ozdemir, B., Aksu, A., Ehtiyar, R., Çizel, B., Çizel, R. B., & Içigen, E. T. (2012). Relationships among tourist profile, satisfaction and destination loyalty: Examining empirical evidences in Antalya Region of Turkey. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 21(5), 506–540.

Pasaco-González, B. S., Campón-Cerro, A. M., Moreno-Lobato, A., & Sánchez-Vargas, E. (2023). The role of demographics and previous experience in tourists’ experiential perceptions. Sustainability (Switzerland), 15(4).

Rather, R. A., Hollebeek, L. D., & Rasoolimanesh, S. M. (2022). First-time versus repeat tourism customer engagement, experience, and value cocreation: An empirical investigation. Journal of Travel Research, 61(3), 549–564.

Rosli, N., Che-Ha, N., & Ghazali, E. M. (2020). The influence of hotel attributes on brand attachment and post-consumption outcomes: The mediating effects of brand credibility. International Journal of Business and Society, 21(1), 313–333.

Shavanddasht, M., & Allan, M. (2019). First-time versus repeat tourists: level of satisfaction, emotional involvement, and loyalty at hot spring. Anatolia, 30(1), 61–74.

Song, H. J., Lee, C. K., Park, J. A., Hwang, Y. H., & Reisinger, Y. (2015). The influence of tourist experience on perceived value and satisfaction with temple stays: The experience economy theory. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 32(4), 401–415.

Sthapit, E., & Coudounaris, D. N. (2018). Memorable tourism experiences: antecedents and outcomes. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(1), 72–94.

The Business Research Company. (2022). Amusement parks global market report 2022: COVID-19 impact and recovery to 2030.

Torres, E. N., Milman, A., & Park, S. (2018). Delighted or outraged? Uncovering key drivers of exceedingly positive and negative theme park guest experiences. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, 1(1), 65–85.

Tripadvisor. (2022). No Title. Reviews. g294210- d4546231- Reviews- Wild_Waters- Mombasa_Coast_Province.html#REVIEWS

Tubillejas-Andrés, B., Cervera-Taulet, A., & Calderón García, H. (2020). How emotional response mediates servicescape impact on post consumption outcomes: An application to opera events. Tourism Management Perspectives, 34(June 2019), 100660.

Tubillejas Andrés, B., Cervera-Taulet, A., & Calderón García, H. (2016). Social servicescape effects on post-consumption behavior: The moderating effect of positive emotions in opera-goers. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 26(5), 590–615.

Verma, J. P., & Abdel-Salam, A. S. G. (2019). Testing statistical assumptions in research. In Testing Statistical Assumptions in Research.

Wang, J., Kim, J., & Kang, S. (2019). Antecedents and consequences of brand experiences in a historical and cultural theme park. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(17).

Wei, W., Zheng, Y., Zhang, L., & Line, N. (2021). Leveraging customer-to-customer interactions to create immersive and memorable theme park experiences. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights.

Wu, H. C., Cheng, C. C., & Ai, C. H. (2018). A study of experiential quality, experiential value, trust, corporate reputation, experiential satisfaction and behavioral intentions for cruise tourists: The case of Hong Kong. Tourism Management, 66, 200–220.

Wu, H. C., Li, M. Y., & Li, T. (2018). A study of experiential quality, experiential value, experiential satisfaction, theme park image, and revisit intention. In Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research (Vol. 42, Issue 1).

Xu, X. (2020). Examining an asymmetric effect between online customer reviews emphasis and overall satisfaction determinants. Journal of Business Research, 106(July), 196–210.

Zeinali, B., & Jafarpour, M. (2015). Does visitors’ demographics, status, length-of-stay, and travel party affect loyalty indicators? A case of visitors to El-gölü Park, IRAN. European Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 3(1), 22–40.

Zhao, Y., Chau, K. Y., Shen, H., Duan, X., & Huang, S. (2020). The influence of tourists’ perceived value and demographic characteristics on the homestay industry: A study based on social stratification theory. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 45(November), 479–485.

Zhu, C., Hoc, L., Fong, N., Shang, Z., & Gan, M. (2022). Rethinking the impact of theme park image on perceived value and behavioral intention: The case of Chimelong Ocean Kingdom, China.

8 May, 2024
How to Cite
Weru, J., Njoroge, J., & Njeri, A. (2024). Visitor Profile: Shaping Experiential Quality, and Post-Consumption Behaviours in Kenyan Theme Parks. African Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 3(1), 77-93.