Assessment of the Socioeconomic Challenges Facing Wapemba Out-Migrants in Tanzania
This study investigated the socioeconomic challenges facing Wapemba out-migrants in their new destinations and places of origin. Four wards at the place of origin and three streets in the destination areas were selected as the study area. Further, 74 respondents in the places of destination and 200 heads of households in the areas of origin were selected as a study sample. The study adopted both qualitative and quantitative research techniques for data collection and analyses. The findings show low income, unemployment, and high dependency as some of the economic challenges encountered by Wapemba migrants at both their places of origin and destination. In addition, the breaking of marriages, accommodation problems, and collapse of families were revealed to be the social challenges facing Wapemba migrants. Additionally, some measures which could facilitate the reduction of the socioeconomic challenges facing Wapemba migrants include joining the Vikoba and SACCOS to accumulate funds. Others were strictly focusing on the expansion of economic investments to employ their relatives and help those remaining behind in their places of origin. This research supplements an understanding of the socioeconomic demographic challenges facing Tanzanians in both rural areas and in the destinations
Adugna, G. (2019). Migration patterns and emigrants’ transnational activities: Comparative findings from two migrant origin areas in Ethiopia. Comparative Migration Studies, 7(1), 1-28.
Aggarwal, V., Solano, G., Singh, P., & Singh, S. (2020). The integration of interstate migrants in India: A 7 state policy evaluation. International Migration, 58(5), 144-163.
Bazillier, R., Magris, F., & Mirza, D. (2017). Out-migration and economic cycles. Review of world economics, 153(1), 39-69.
Bhandari, D., Kotera, Y., Ozaki, A., Abeysinghe, S., Kosaka, M., & Tanimoto, T. (2021). COVID-19: challenges faced by Nepalese migrants living in Japan. BMC public health, 21(1), 1-14.
Bryson, A., & White, M. (2019). Migrants and low-paid employment in British workplaces. Work, Employment and Society, 33(5), 759-776.
David, A., & Marouani, M. A. (2017, December). Migration patterns and labor market outcomes in Tunisia. In Economic Research Forum Working Paper (No. 1166). https://erf.org.eg/app/upload/2017/12/1166.pdf
Ezeoha, A. E. (2013). Financial determinants of international remittance flows to the sub‐saharan African region. International Migration, 51, e84-e97.
Hough, V. M. (2015). The migration crisis? Facts, challenges and possible solutions Retrieved 21/2/2022 from https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.orguk,academia.ed
IOM. (2018). Key Migration Terms. https://www.iom.int/key-migration-terms
IOM. (2020). Migration in West Africa and North Africa and Across the Mediterranean, Trend Risks. Development Journal British Sociological Association. 33(5), https://doi.org/10.1177/095001701983250
Israel, G. D. (1992). Determining Sample Size. Program Evaluation and Organizational Development, IFAS, University of Florida
Joshi, K., & Khanal, K. (2020). Neoliberal globalization, migration and food security: the case of Nepal. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kalpana-Khanal/publication/343833679
Kaku P. M., Zhu, H., & Peter, M. (2019). Impact of Climate Change on Water Resource Management in Zanzibar, Tongji University. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 9 (3), 2250-3153.
Lawi, J. (2013). The Rapid Growth of Towns and Migration in Tanzania: A Case Study of Babati Town Teofilo Kisanji University International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology 3 (7).
Lee, E. (1966). Theory of Migration. Journal of Demography, 3 (1), 47-57.
Marandi, A., & Main, K. L. (2021). Vulnerable City, recipient city, or climate destination? Towards a typology of domestic climate migration impacts in US cities. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences 11, 465–480.
Marchiori L, Maystadt, J.F., & Schumacher, I. (2017) Is Environmentally-induced Income Variability a Driver of Human Migration? Working paper, Retrieved 12/3/2023 https://faculty-research.ipag.edu/wp content/uploads/recherche/WP/IPAG_WP_2017
Mendy, J., & Polay, H. (2018). Learning from failure: A study of failed enterprises of self-employed. African migrants in the UK. Journal of small Business and enterprises development, 25(2), 330-343. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSBED-11-2017-0332
Menjívar, C., & Lakhani, S., M. (2016). Transformative Effects of Immigration Law: Immigrants’ Personal and Social Metamorphoses through Regularization. American Journal of Sociology, 121(6), 1818-1855. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/685103
Njella, L. (2013). Assessment of the contribution of rural– urban migration to poverty alleviation: A case study of the youth in Kinondoni municipal Unpublished Master of Public Administration, Mzumbe University.
NYS-IA. (2020). Biggest-challenges -facing-immigrants Retrieved 23/2/2023, from https://www.nysia.org/the-8-
OECD. (2016). Addressing migration challenges beyond the current humanitarian crisis. https://www.oecd.org/policy-briefs/greece-addressing-migration-challenges.
Oucho, J, Oucho, L. A., & Ochieng, V. (2014). Is Migration the Solution to Poverty Alleviation in Kenya? Rural-Urban Migration. https://www.africaportal.org/contributors/linda-adhiambo-oucho
Parrenas, R. S., Maria, S., Hwang, C., & Choi, C., A. (2018). Serial Labour Migration: Precarity and Itinerancy among Filipino and Indonesian Domestic Workers Article 1-29. https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/60130031/4-Precarity_and_Itinerancy2
Said, S. S., Jiddawi, N., Salmin, Y. N., & Cockcroft, V. (2020). Assessment of the status, threats and management of dugongs along coastal waters of Pemba Island, Zanzibar. Int. J. Acad. Multidiscipl. Res, 4, 97-106.
Shishehgar, S., Gholizadeh, L., DiGiacomo, M., & Davidson, P. M. (2015). The impact of migration on the health status of Iranians: an integrative literature review. BMC international health and human rights, 15(1), 1-11.
Sileyew, K. J. (2019). Research design and methodology. Cyberspace, 1-12. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335110374.
Singapur, D., & Sreenivasa, K. N. (2014). The social impacts of migration in India. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 3(5), 19-24.
Suttie, D. (2019). Migration and rural advisory services. GFRAS paper 2. USAID. Retrieved 21/3/2023 from http://rescar-aoc.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Ae_GFRAS_GIPS2
URT. (2022). “Population and Housing Census”, Analytical Report 2002 Population and Housing Census, General Report, National Bureau of Statistics, President’s Office, Dar es Salaam.
Yahya, K. M., & Mbonile, M. (2017). The Socioeconomic Impact of Skilled People Out-migration in Pemba: A Case of Wete District. Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania, 36, (1) 75-94
Copyright (c) 2023 Abubakar Salum Hamad
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.