Drought Analysis in Somalia Using GIS - Based on Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)
As a result of climate change, Somalia has experienced severe droughts in recent decades because Somalia is a water-scarce country in East Africa with arid and semi-arid environments. In this study, drought in Somalia from 2010 to 2021 was investigated. For this purpose, the agroclimatological data consisting of precipitation, air temperature, and potential evapotranspiration (ETp) were obtained and calculated in DrinC software. The Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) were used as meteorologically based to measure drought severity and analyse the variability of drought events in Somalia during the last decade. Most years experienced rainfall deficits and severe drought in the study area, but the worst years were 2010-2011 and 2016-2017. The results of the RDI and SPI variations showed that drought was most severe in 2016-2017 and 2010-2011, with the south-eastern region being the most severely affected. The results of this analysis should provide valuable guidance to future scientists, researchers, and national managers researching this topic.
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