Water Use Strategies for Livestock by Pastoralists: The Case of Semi-Arid Areas in Monduli District, Arusha Region, Tanzania
The paper explores livestock water use strategies that have been employed to cope with the problem of water shortage in Monduli District, Tanzania. The study employed a cross-sectional research design. Quantitative data were collected by using an interview schedule from 367 respondents who were randomly selected from Moita and Makuyuni Wards. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and observations were used to supplement the collected data. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 was used to analyse quantitative data, while qualitative data were analysed by using content analysis. The study findings show that livestock water scarcity and high-water supply charges caused pastoralists to come up with strategies for accessing water for livestock. These strategies include selling live livestock, engagement in off-farm income generation activities, water supply for livestock schedule, Charco dam rainwater harvesting technology, migration, small ruminant birth control and the use of temporary traditional dug well. Most of the strategies used play multiple roles since they not only enhance access to water for livestock but they play other beneficial roles. For example, selling livestock and birth control serve the problem of land degradation caused by overgrazing and also overcome the conflicts between farmers and pastoralists. It is therefore recommended that such strategies should be promoted for the development of livestock and agriculture sector in general. Other strategies used are traditional, for example, the use of traditional temporary wells, which do not allow pastoralists to access water throughout the year. This calls the need for local government and development partners to come up and promote improved and permanent structures like the Charco dam and other strategies that allow water accessibility throughout the year
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